Chapter 1- Keeping Food Safe

What does the term Foodborne Illness mean?

A disease transmitted to people from food

When is an illness considered an outbreak?

-Two or more people have the same symptoms after eating the same food-An investigation is conducted by state and local regulatory authorities-The outbreak is confirmed by laboratory analysis

What are some challenges to food safety?

TimeLanguage and cultureLiteracy and educationPathogensUnapproved suppliersHigh-risk customersStaff turnover

What are the costs of foodborne illness?

loss of customers and sales, loss of reputation, negative media exposure, lowered staff morale, lawsuits and legal fees, staff missing work, increased insurance premiums, staff retraining

What are the three types of contamination in unsafe food?


What are the biological contaminants?

bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi

What are the chemical contaminants?

cleaners, sanitizers, polishes

What are the physical hazards?

Metal shavings, staples, bandages, glass, dirt, natural objects (Example: Fish bones in a filet)

What are the 5 risk factors for foodborne illness?

1) Purchasing food from unsafe sources2) Failing to cook food correctly3) Holding food at incorrect temperatures4) Using contaminated equipment5) Practicing poor personal hygiene

How does food become unsafe?

Time-Temperature Abuse; Cross-Contamination; Poor Personal hygiene; Poor Cleaning and Sanitizing.

What does time-temperature abuse mean?

When food has stayed too long at temperatures good for pathogen growth

What are some examples how food has been time-temperature abused?

-Food has not been held or stored at correct temperatures-Food is not cooked or reheated enough to kill pathogens-Food is not cooled properly

What does cross-contamination mean?

the spreading of bacteria or other pathogens from one surface or food to another

What are some ways cross-contamination can cause foodborne illness?

-Contaminated ingredients are added to food that receives no further cooking-Ready-to-eat food touches contaminated surfaces-Contaminated food touches or drips fluids onto cooked or ready-to-eat food-A food handler touches contaminated food and then touches ready-to-eat food-Contaminated wiping cloths touch food-contact surfaces

Poor personal hygiene can cause a foodborne illness when food handlers:

-Fail to wash their hands correctly after using the restroom-Cough or sneeze on food-Touch or scratch wounds and then touch food-Work while sick

What are some examples of poor cleaning and sanitizing?

-Equipment and utensils are not washed, rinsed, and sanitized between uses-Food-contact surfaces are wiped clean instead of being washed, rinsed, and sanitized-Wiping cloths are not stored in a sanitizer solution between uses-Sanitizer solutions are not at the required levels to sanitize objects

What are TCS foods that are most likely to become unsafe?

-Milk & dairy products-Eggs-Meat (beef, pork, lamb)-Poultry-Fish-Shellfish-Baked potatoes-Heat treated plant food ( Rice, Beans, and vegies)-Tofu (soy protein)-Sprouts-Sliced melons, Cut tomatoes, leafy greens-Garlic and oil mixtures

Ready-to-eat food is food that can be eaten without further:

Preparation, washing, cooking

What are some examples of ready-to-eat foods?

-Cooked food, washed fruit and vegetables, deli meat, bakery items, sugar, spices, and seasonings

Who has a higher risk of getting foodborne illness?

Preschool-age children, Elderly people, People with compromised immune systems

When keeping food safe we should focus on these measures:

-Purchasing from approved, reputable suppliers-Controlling time and temperature-Preventing cross-contamination-Practicing person hygiene-Cleaning and sanitizing