BIOL 209 Exam 2 Study Guide

What is Panarthropoda?

Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tarigrada

What are Chelicerata?

Arachnids and relatives

Trilobrite Characteristics

50,000 species extinct nowSister group to all other chelicerataWhole body hard plating3 sections Exoskeletons has unbelievable amount of shapes and they radiated to all kids of niches

Synapomorphies of all Chelicerata

have chelicerae=modified appendage on 1st body segment(pinchers)2 Body parts= prosoma and opisthosoma(no head)6(arachnids) or more segments(1st chelicerae, 2nd pedipalps, +4 or more pairs of walking legs)NO ANTENNAE

What two groups branch off of Chelicerata?

Euchelicerata and pycnogondida(sea spiders)

What two groups branch off of Euchelicerata?

Arachnida(spiders) and Xiphosura(horseshoe crabs)

Pycnogonids(Sea spiders) Characteristics

small ophistosomaall marinePredators3 or 4 extra limbsfound in every ocean and at most depthsmight be true arachnids(unknown)

Xiphosura(horseshoe crabs) characteristics

living fossils and the only living lineage of marine eucheliceratesboth body segments covered by a large shellinhabit shallow marine habitats Prey or scavenge

Arachnida Characteristics

Structure....Divided into 2 tagmata=cephalothorax and abdomenno antenna or mandiblescephalothorax bears a pair of chelicerae, a pair of pedipalps, and 4 walking legs

Characteristics of the Order Scorpiones(Chelecerata->Arachnida->Scorpiones)

Scorpion1,400 speciesmost common on tropical and subtropical zonesPectines=> specialized appendages fro exploration and sex recognition(Synapomorphy)last segment is a stinger25 have dangerous venom to humans (neurotoxin venom)Simple maternal care (reproduce sexually and parthenogenesis)glow in the dark

What is the importance of the Buthidae family?

Scorpions with small pinchersmost of the dangerous scorpions to humans are in this family

Characteristics of the Order Acarina(Ticks and Mites)(Chelecerata->Arachnida->Acarina)

55,000 speciesMedically and Economically the most importantlive everywherecomplete fusion of cephalothorax and abdomenMites are less than 1mm bigTicks are 2cm bigmost cause of allergies(feces)

Characteristics of spider mites(Acarina)

important agricultural pest mitescause damage by puncturing the plant to feedproduce silk and make protective webs

Characteristics of Chiggers(Acarina)

larval trombicula mites feed on dermal tissue and cause skin irritation

Characteristics of Hair follicle mites(Demodex) (Acarina)

smallest arthropod

Characteristics of Ixodes(Acarina)

hard bodied ticksmany transmit borrelia burgdorderi(lymes disease)

Characteristics of the Order Amblypygi(whip spiders)(Chelecerata->Arachnida->Amblypygi)

Aggressive predators but harmless to humanslive in caves, poor eyesight, 1st with modified feelers

Characteristics of the Order Pseudoscorpions(Chelecerata->Arachnida->Pseudoscorpions)

3,300 speciessmall and flatthide under bark, stones, litterhave venom glands in pincher(enlarged pedipalps, a flexible finger associated with venom glands)

Characteristics of order Uropygi(Whip Scorpions)(Chelecerata->Arachnida->Uropygi)

elongated, slightly flattened, no stingemit vinegar-like ordernocturnal and predaceousall are predators of arthropodsno venom glands but have glands that produce acetic and octanoid acids-predator avoidance1st pair of legs are feelers as in Amblypygi

Chacteristics of the order Solifugae(Chelecerata->Arachnida->Solifugae)

1,100 speciesmost in desertspredators but lack venompedipalps are sensory used to locate preyhave adhesive disks

Characteristics of the order Schizomida(short tailed whip scorpions)(Chelecerata->Arachnida->Schizomida)

230 speciesblindno venom but have acid spray glandsshort tails involved in courtship

Characteristics of the order Opiliones(daddy long legs)(Chelecerata->Arachnida->Opiliones)

6500 speciesbody fused into 1 segmentno venom=acid defensedo body shaking and shed legs

Polyneoptera and Hexapods have...

6 Legs

What is Ecdysozoa(molting bugs)?


Hexapods split into what two groups?

Insecta and Entognatha

Characteristics of Entognatha

Entognatha=mouthpart retracted into a pouch in the headCompound eyes reduced or lostAmetabolous(no metamorphysis)

What are the 3 major orders of Entognatha?


Characteristics of the order Protura(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Entognatha=>Protura)

700 speciessmall functionally tertrapods (no antennae)

Characteristics of the order Collembola(springtails)(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Entognatha=>Collembola)

Synapomorphy of the spring mechanism(15cm in the air)shart antennaeFamily sminthuridae=>oval or globular=>antennae long and geniculate

Characteristics of the order Diplura(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Entognatha=>Diplura)

800 speciespaired cerci(diplo'uros'=2 tails)

Synapomorphies of Ectognatha(insecta)

Ectognatha=external mouthparts

Synapomorphy of Polyneoptera

expansion of the anal wing lobe with associated weins

What are the superorders of Polyneoptera?

Plecopterida(stone flies, webspinners)Orthopterida(grasshoppers, walking sticks)Dictyotera(praying mantis, cockroaches)Dermaptera(earwigs)Gryllopblatodea(ice crawlers 'cricket-roaches')Mantophasmatodea(gladiators)

What are the orders of plecopterida?(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Plecopterida)

Embriodea(web spinners)ZorateraPlecoptera(stoneflies)

Characteristics of the order Embriodea(web spinners)(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Plecopterida=>Embriodea)

secrete silk from glands on first tarsusmostly tropical

Characteristics of the order Zoratera(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Plecopterida=>Zoratera)

distinctive leg spinnerspurely wingless(false though)

Characteristic of the order Plecoptera(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Plecopterida=>Plecoptera)

aquatic nymphs

Characteristics of the order Dermaptera(earwigs)(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Dermaptera)

reduced short wingscerci modified into forcepsFurficulidae=family found in vermont

Chacteristics of the order grylloblatodea(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Grylloblatodea)

ice crawlerswings almost entirely lost

Characteristics of the order mantophasmatodea(gladiators)(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Mantophasmatoodea)

African rock crawlermost recently discovered order of insectsno wingsDNA suggests similar to walking sticks

What are the orders of Orthopterida?

Orthoptera(crickets, grasshoppers, katydids)AcrididaeGryllidaeTeltigoniidae(KatydidsPhasmatodae

Characteristics of the order Orthoptera(crickets, grasshoppers, katydids)(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Orthoterida=>orthoptera)

Synapomorphy of saltatorial hind legshind tibial spinesstridulatory organ on forewingproduce loud sounds/call(mating)Tympanum=stretched=ears on legsmembranes that sense vibrations

Chacteristics of the order Acrididae(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Orthoterida=>Acrididae)

short horned grasshoppers(include locusts)powerful hind legs and well developed wingscommon in VTmostly vegetarian=>common prey

Characteristics of the order Gryllidae(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Orthoterida=>Gryllidae)

CricketsStridulatehave tympanawings bend around the body

Chacteristics of the order Teltigoniidae(Katydids)(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Orthoterida=.Teltiltigoniidae)

long hind legsantennae on top of headvery vocal

Characteristics of the order Phasmatodae(walking sticks)(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Orthoterida=>Phasmatodae)

morphological and behavioral camoHeteronumiidae family common in VT(wingless)Synapomorphy of stick insects is having a operculum(egg pouch)

What are the orders of Dictyoptera(praying mantises, roaches, and termites)?

Mantodea(Praying Mantis)Blatteria(roaches and relatives)Isoptera(Termites)

Characteristics of the order Mantodea(praying mantis)(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Dictyoptera=>Mantodea)

2400 speciespredatory with reportorial forelegsexcellent visionsexually cannibalistic

Characteristics of the order Blatteria(Roaches and Relatives)(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Dictyoptera=>Blatteria)

Large phantom concealing headFlattened bodygeneralist feeder30 species associated with pests

Importance of the Family Blattidea

PestAmerican and oriental cockroaches2-4cmWingedFasted creatures(3.4mph)

Importance of Blatellidae

PestGerman cockroachesSmall flightlessCommon in houses

Importance of the Cryptocercus Wood Roaches

Share some of the protists found in termites are found in the digestive system of this roachTheory is that the termites are roaches(parsimoniously)

Characteristics of the order Isoptera(Termites)(Mandibulata=>Pancrustacea=>Altocrustacea=> Miracrustacea=>Hexapoda=>Insecta=>Polyneoptera=>Dictyoptera=>Isoptera)

Citizen roaches10% are pesttruly social-Eusocial insectsDivision of labor with overlapping generations and are amazing engineersUnlike other Eusocial Insects the termites are diploid with soldiers and workers of both sexesThe Queen controls the termite population very closelyHugely important ecologically and economically

What are the Synapomorphies of the order Araneae?

Abdominal appendages modified as spinneretsSilk glands and associated spigotsCheliceral venom glandsMale pedipalpal tarsi modified as secondary sexual organsLoss of abdominal segments(all possible sister taxa are segmented)

What are Scopulae?

Ventral surface if each hair splits into thousands of fine cuticular extensionslooks like a broomAllow massive amount of contact points between leg and surfacePhysical adhesion enhanced by capillary forces of an extremely thin water film on substrate

Characteristics of the Species Cupiennius(In the order Araneae)

can hold 10x body weight on vertical glass

Characteristics of Spider Venom

Primarily neurotoxinsLatrotoxins=cause release of acetylcholineNecrotoxins=Brown recluse venom contains Sphingomyelinase D causing necrosis

Characteristics of the Family Uloboridae(Chelecerata->Araneae->UIoboridae)

no venom glands

Characteristics of spiders

produce silk(7 types produced by adult females)nearly all predatorsmost have venommost have 8 eyes but poor eyesightsensitive to vibrationsDigestion is internal and external(liquefy their prey)

What are the major suborders in Araneae?


Characteristics of the order Mesothelae?(Chelecerata->Araneae->Mesothelae=>Lephistiidae)

There is only one family=>Liphistiidaeonly spider with external signs of segmentationTube-dwellersSit and wait fro prey and construct rudimentary trap doors.25% of the spider diversity97 species rarely seen

Characteristics of Mygalomorphae?(Chelecerata=>Araneae=>Mygalomorphae)

Tarantulas and relatives1,000 specieshave 4 or 6 spinneretsLarge spidersEarth tigers; bird-eating spiders; barking spiders; Whistling6% of spider diversityParallel fangsfour book lungs

Characteristics of the Genus Atrax(Sidney Funnel Web Spider)

Possibly the most potent venom of all spidersVery aggressiveAnti-venom=no deaths reported in the last decade or so

Characteristics of Araneomorphae(Chelecerata=>Araneae=>Araneomorphae)

93% of the spider diversityOpposing fangsCribellum(repeatedly lost)Usually 2 book lungsTypical spiders

What three main groups does Araneomorphae split into

Primative Araneomorphs, orb weavers and relative, and RTA-clade

What is another term for Araneomorphs?

Haplogynae8% of spider diversity

Characteristics of Scytodes

Spitting spider6 eyes, unique shape of prosoma, and silk spitting

Characteristics of the Brown Recluse(Loxosceles)

Haplogynaeoften misidentified

Characteristics of Orb Weavers and relatives

29% of spider diversityorb web repeatedly modifiedevolution of the orb web

Typical orb weavers

Araneidae: note the body shape, relative leg lengthTetragnathidae: note slender body(in some), big cheliceraeOrb weavers are in several families

Theridiosomatdae and Hyptiotes web characteristics

Release websTheridiosomatidae-tiny spiders with raised prosomaUloboridae-Hyptiotes note body shape

Characteristics of Deinopidae

Ogre-faced spidershuge posterior median eyesfling a sheet of web at passing prey

Characteristics of Scholoderus Ladder Web

many spider build ladder webs

Importance of the Bolas Spiders

unusal araneidae spidersfish for moths out of the airswing a line of silk with a sticky blob at the top mimic the pheromones of moths

Characteristics of Theridiidae

cobweb spiderssmall to medium sizedbuild cobwebslegs without spinestarsal comb

Importance of redback spiders

makes cob web aimed at pedestrian preyfemales typically eat males during mating

Social spiders

20-25 speciesspread across 9 familiesno division of labor or caste systemmultiple reproductive females per nestfemale biased ratios

Characteristics of Kleptoparasitic spiders

argyrodinae theridiid spiders steal prey from larger spiderssilver color attracts prey

Characteristics of RTA clade

mostly wandering spiders that have abandoned web use(jumping spiders, crab spiders, wolf spiders)

Characteristics of the order Salticidae

larger anterior median eyesexcellent visionmany mimic ants Jumping spidersSome turned vegetarian

Characteristics of the species Evarcha Culicivora

Vampire Spiderselects prey based on what the prey has eateneats human blood via mosquito

Characteristics of the species Portia

most intelligentprey on other spiders using amazing stealth plus aggressive mimicry

Characteristics of the family Pisauridae(fishing spiders)

also called nursery web spiderscan catch tadpoles minnows out of the waterspontaneous male death

Characteristics of the family Lycosidae(Wolf spiders)

ground huntersattach their egg sacs to their spinneretsyoung crawl up on moms abdomennote distinct eye pattern

Characteristics of the family Thomisidae(Crab Spiders)

huntsman spidersbiggest length wise with legs

How do you identify Mygalomorphae vs Araneomorphae?

look at the chelicera

Common Entelegynae

Simple palps no external female genitalia

Characteristics of the family Agelenidae

funnel spidersgrass spidersresemble wolf spiders but eye pattern is normal

Characteristics of the family Linyphiidae

dwarf spidermoney spiderssmallmore leg spines and no comb

Important parts in spinning silk


Mechanics of Viscoelastic Silks

Strength(Force) vs Stretchinessextensibility is the highest pointultimate strength in the x axis lengthunder the curve is the toughness

What makes spider silk so special?

Biological super materialonly lower in strength to Kevlar(dragline silk)Extensibility of capture silk is significantly larger than all other materialstoughness of silk is greatest in dragline silk and capture silk second

How do we study silk?

we use model organismsthey have many benefits but severely limit the extent of the knowledge

Important Ingi Discovery

Larger spiders spin better silklarger spiders make webs that are better relative to body mass than those made by small spidersUse bioprospecting

What are supercontractions?

shortening of the silk through water-powered biomimetic muscle