History of Western Civ II - Apocalypse to Revolution

Dies ire

Also known as the "Day of Wrath, a thirteenth-century hymn commonly sung in services for the dead, powerfully expressed the sense of overwhelming disaster in which the Middle Ages ended.

atra mors

Latin for 'dreadful death', it described the black plague.

Ciompi Revolt

1378 in Italy - revolt of poor - part of same phenomena as Jacqueries. Came about because of post-Black Death anarchy, collapse of several banking families which led to economic shambles, and feuding between new and old rich. Suppressed as were other revo

Peasants' Revolt (England)

Largest revolt in the Middle Ages, 100s of thousands of people; uprisings were crushed by Richard II after he tricked leaders of the revolt

100 Years War

a war between England and France from 1337 to 1453. Finally France won. It was started by Edward III of England to claim the French throne. It brought about new styles of warfare. Most prominent figure was Joan of Arc.

Joan of Arc

(c. 1412-1431) French peasant girl, a heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions; rallied French troops during the Hundred Years War to resist the English and to have Charles VII crowned king

Wars of the Roses (1455-1485)

civil war for the English crown between the York (white rose) and Lancaster (red rose) families

Bastard Feudalism

Late medieval corruption of the feudal system replacing feudal loyalty with cash payments

Unam Sanctam

A Papal bull, issued by Boniface VIII in 1302. Extreme assertion of papal supremacy. No salvation outside the Roman Catholic Church & "every human creature" was "subject to the Roman pontiff." Creates tension with French king, Philip the Fair. Power issue

Avignon Papacy

the period of Church history from 1308 to 1378 when the popes lived and ruled in Avignon, France instead of in Rome

Great Schism (1378-1417)

A conflict in the Roman Catholic Church where there were 2 (Urban VI vs. Clement VII) and at times 3 popes all fighting for power. The split brought the church into major conflict and weakened the religious faith of many.

Conciliar movement

A reform movement that emerged in the Church in the fourteenth century that held that final authority in spiritual matters rested with church councils, not with the Pope. Conciliarism emerged in response to the Avignon Papacy.

devotio moderna

Also known as the "modern devotion", this flourished in the low countries in the German states which was a movement characterized by an emotional religiosity and the private devotions of lay piety.

golden horde

Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde.


The year that Constantinople was sacked by the Ottoman Turks and meant that Byzantium had collapsed.

Estates General

France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners.

House of Commons

one of the houses of Parliament including wealthy landowners and rich business leaders that represent the middle class and are elected to office

power of the purse

The constitutional power of Congress to raise and spend money. Congress can use this as a negative or checking power over the other branches by freezing or cutting their funding.

De Medici

Banking family that held political power in Florence (mostly behind the scenes) for centuries (15th-18th). They were humanist thinkers and great patrons of the arts.


A Valencian-Italian noble family of terrible (and mostly deserved) reputation, the Borgias featured importantly in renaissance Italian politics. Notable members of the family included Rodrigo, who went on to become Pope Alexander VI, and Ceasare, son of R

Czar Ivan "the Great

Turned back the last Mongol advance on Moscow in 1480, emerging is the first real ruler of the states that became the core of modern Russia. Also established Russia claim to be the true heir of the Byzantine tradition after marrying a niece of the last Em

Isabella d'Este

Marchioness of Mantua and one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance as a major cultural and political figure. She was a patron of the arts as well as a leader of fashion, whose innovative style of dressing was copied by women throughout Italy an

Studia humanitatis

advocated by Humanists, by scholarly study of Latin and Greek classics and the works of the ancient Church Fathers; during the Renaissance, a liberal arts program of study that embraced grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, philosophy, and politics

Petrarch (1304-1374)

Father of Renaissance humanism. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.

Lorenzo Valla (1406-1457)

Italian Humanist figure whose "On Pleasure", and "On the False Donation of Constantine" challenged the authority of the papacy; father of modern historical criticism.

Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)

Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote "The Praise of Folly", worked for Frobein and

Niccol� Machiavelli (1469-1527)

Wrote "The Prince", the first modern manual of politics. It was a very secular text based on reality and practical politics. Believed the end justifies the means. His model was Cesare Borgia.

Boccaccio (1313-1375)

Author of The Decameron, a work of secular stories that were actually his personal commentary on Italian society in his day. The themes of sex, cheating and ambition somewhat resembled tabloid reporting or daytime television today.

Cervantes (1547-1616)

Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form.

William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616)

English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet.


The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, especially to give an illusion of depth.

Giotto di Bondone (1276-1337)

Florentine painter who led the way in the use of realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body.

Botticelli (1444-1510)

One of the leading painters of the Florentine Renaissance, developed a highly personal style. He was one of the many artists sponsored by the Medici family who painted members of the Medici family and religious figures. His most famous work was Primavera.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best k

Michelangelo (1475-1564)

An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.

Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520)

artist of Italy's High Renaissance and one of the greatest influences in the history of Western art; created the large-scale fresco "The School of Athens", as well as other decorative work at the Vatican; his work is often cited for its harmony and balanc

D�rer (1471-1528)

a leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance

Brunelleschi (1377-1446)

Italian architect, celebrated for work during Florentine Renaissance. He was anti-Gothic. Foundling Hospital in Florence. Recognized to be the first modern engineer, planner, and sole construction supervisor. He is most famous for designing the dome of th

Donatello (1386-1466)

Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.

Martin Luther

a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.


Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.

Katharina von Bora

wife of Martin Luther & former nun; symbolized of the nonexistent emphasis on celibacy in Protestantism and set an example of a pastor's wife

Cuius regio eius religio

Whose the region, his religion." The principle that a local leader can choose the religion of his region.

John Calvin (1509-1564)

A French theologian and Protestant reformer who wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion; he established a theocracy in Geneva and is best known for his theory of predestination.


the governing council of the Calvinist Geneva, consisting of members from the city government, the church leadership, and the laity

Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)

Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.


A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.

Jan Leiden

took over the German city of Munster (Munster Revolution) and instituted anabaptism, community of property, and polygamy, naming himself king- executed after Lutherans and Catholics teamed up against the town

Council of Trent

A meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers secure reconciliation with them. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend. Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings, forbade the sale

Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)

Spanish Carmelite nun and one of the principal saints of the Roman Catholic Church; she reformed the Carmelite order. Her fervor for the Catholic Church proved inspiring for many people during the Reformation period.

Index of forbidden books

Written by Pope Paul IV as part of the Counter-Reformation. It forbade Catholics from reading books considered "harmful" to faith and morals. This indicates the significance of the printing press in disseminating Reformation ideas.

Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)

A Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits. His order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.


a Catholic teaching and missionary order created to resist the spread of Protestantism. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.

Defenestration of Prague (1618)

Event that marked the beginning of the Thirty Years' War in Bohemia. The Catholic Holy Roman Emperor King Ferdinand II closed some Protestant churches, resulting in Protestants throwing his officials out of a castle window.


An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

Thirty Years War (1618-1648 CE)

Conflict within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.

War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713)

war fought over the Spanish throne; Louis XIV wanted it for his son and fought a war against the Dutch, English, and the Holy Roman Empire to gain the throne for France

Treaty of Westphalia

Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic


Austrian rulers of the Holy Roman empire and the Netherlands


a french rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy, caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism

Ancien Regime

The traditional political and social order in Europe for the previous century or more before the French Revolution

Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg-Prussia

a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings, and emperors of what amounts to a German Empire of various territories. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia and are derived from the Burchardinger dynasty; split into two branch


the spread of disease across a large area or even the world


Members of the conservative and wealthy Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism

Little Ice Age

A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.

Peter the Great (1682-1725)

The Romanov czar who initiated the westernization of Russian society by traveling to the West and incorporating techniques of manufacturing as well as manners and dress.

Witch craze

The rash of persecutions that took place between 1550-1650 of people who were accused of witchcraft in both Catholic and Protestant countries of early modern Europe and their colonies, facilitated by secular governments and religious authorities.

Constitutional Monarchy

A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution; began in 1688 in England

The Sun King

A nickname for Louis xiv that captures the magnificence of his court and of the Palace of Versailles, which he built. Louis himself adopted the sun as his emblem.

English Civil War/Oliver Cromwell (1642-1649)

A conflict over royal versus parliamentary rights, caused by King Charles I's arrest of his parliamentary critics and ending with his execution. Its outcome checked the growth of royal absolutism and, with the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and and the Engli

Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)

Minister to Louis XIII. His three point plan (1. Break the power of the nobility, 2. Humble the House of Austria, 3. Control the Protestants) helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.

Glorious Revolution

A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.

Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661)

Minister to Louis the XIV while he was still a child' his bad attempts to increase royal revenue and the state drove nobles to rebel and led to the Fronde

Bill of Rights (1689)

Commenced as a law during the reign of William and Mary, affirming Parliament's right to make laws and levy taxes and making it impossible for kings to oppose or do without Parliament by stipulating that standing armies could be raised only with the conse

Revocation of Edict of Nantes

part of Louis XIV's efforts to have France have only one religion, he closed Huguenots churches and schools, banned all their public activities, and exiled those who refused to embrace the state religion

Gallican Liberties

the recognized independence of the French monarchy from papal authority in Rome.

urban patriciate

wealthy families in Florence and Venice who controlled most of the poverty.


A palace built by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility; it was home to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette

El Dorado

a place of reputed wealth; from the legendary city in South America, sought by early Spanish explorers

Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584)

earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.


A small, highly maneuverable three-masted Spanish or Portuguese sailing ship of the 15th-17th centuries used in the exploration of the Atlantic.

Treaty of Nerchinsk

in 1689, it was the first treaty between Russia and China. The Russians gave up the area south of the Amur River and East of the mouth of the Amur River but kept the area between the Amur River and Lake Baikal in exchange for permission to trade with Chin


An instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets

biological invasion

The successful establishment of a species in a region not previously occupied followed by rapid range expansion

Mercator projection

A true conformal cylindrical map projection, the Mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. Mercator projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear over

Joint-stock company

A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.

Prester John

In legends popular from 12th to 17th century, a mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom was cut off from Europe by Muslim conquests; Chinggis Khan was originally believed to be this mythical ruler

Vasco da Gama

Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.

Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)

The Italian sailor who persuaded King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to fund his expedition across the Atlantic to discover a new trade route to Asia. Instead of arriving at China or Japan, he reached the Bahamas in 1492.

Amerigo Vespucci

Florentine navigator who explored the coast of South America and corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of America as a new world. America is named after him.

Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.

Sebastian del Cano

Portuguese explorer who finished Ferdinand Magellan's mission of circumnavigating the globe

Treaty of Tordesillas

A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.

Cortez (1485-1547)

Spanish conquistador who was responsible for the conquest of the Aztec Empire and the claiming of much of Central America for the Spanish.

Pizarro (1475-1541)

Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima

Black legend

Concept that Spanish conquerors merely tortured and murdered Indians, stole gold and infected them with smallpox, leaving nothing of benefit

Bartolom� de las Casas

Dominican friar and first bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerin

Jacques Cartier (1491-1557)

He led the first French effort to colonize North America and explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence and reached as far as present day Montreal on the St. Lawrence River.

Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635)

French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec

Francis Drake (1540-1596)

English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada

William Penn

A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.


Peoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as peasant herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. Cossacks led the conquest of Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Jean Bodin

This was the man who created the theory of sovereignty in which a state becomes sovereign by claiming a monopoly over the instruments of justice


Treason trials

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

English political philosopher who wrote "Leviathan"; viewed human beings as naturally self-centered and prone to violence; feared the dangers of anarchy more than the dangers of tyranny; argued that monarchs have absolute and unlimited political authority

John Locke (1632-1704)

English philosopher who wrote "The Second Treatise of Government"; viewed humans as basically rational beings who learn from experience; formulated the theory of natural rights, arguing that people are born with basic rights to "life, liberty, and propert

Baroque art

Art that applies naturalistic, REALIST styles and contrast with light and dark. Religious AND secular themes. Involved with ABSOLUTISM.

Catholic Reformation

a 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

One of the most famous Baroque artist who studied Michelangelo in Italy and took the Renaissance style to the next level of drama, motion, color, religion and animation, which is portrayed in his paintings. He developed his own rich, sensuous, colorful st


Italian painter noted for his realistic depiction of religious subjects and his novel use of light; painters of "The Calling of St. Matthew

Artemisia Gentileschi

important woman painter of the Baroque famous for vivid depictions of dramatic sense and her Judith paintings


Italian sculptor and architect of the Baroque period in Italy; know for his sculptures of David and the Ecstasy of St. Teresa


This composer of the first opera Orfeo and inspired opera in the early 1600's

John Milton (1608-1674)

English writer, son of a devout Puritan father, author of Paradise Lost

Rembrandt (1606-1669)

Dutch realist painter who painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus

John Bunyan (1628-1688)

Author of Pilgrim's Progress

Thomas Kuhn

Defined normal science, established paradigms/paradigm shift as a way of understanding the scientific revolution, wrote The Structure of Scientific Revolutions


2nd century Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus

Copernicus (1473-1543)

Polish astronomer who was the first to formulate a scientifically based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the earth from the center of the universe. This theory is considered the epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution.

Kepler (1571-1630)

This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun; proved Copernican hypothesis with math, laws of planetary motion

Galileo (1564-1642)

An Italian who provided more evidence for heliocentrism and questioned if the heavens really were perfect. He invented a new telescope, studied the sky, and published what he discovered. Because his work provided evidence that the Bible was wrong he was a

Issac Newton (1642-1727)

English scientist and mathematician who wrote the Principia. Viewed the universe as a vast machine governed by the universal laws of gravity and inertia. mechanistic view of the universe strongly influenced deism

William Gilbert

published De Magneta, the first great English science book

Rene Descartes

17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle "cogito, ergo sum" or "I think therefore I am"; believed mind and matter were completely separate; known as father of modern rationalism

Spinoza (1632-1677AD)

Wrote Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometric Manner. Rejected Cartesian Dualism and supported Pantheism where "god" is a singular self-subsistent substance.

Leibniz (1646-1716)

German philosopher and mathematician who thought of the universe as consisting of independent monads and who devised a system of the calculus independent of Newton

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical scientific method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.

Scientific societies of the 17th century

The Royal Society of London (1662), the Paris Acad�mie Royale des Sciences (1666), and the Berlin Akademie der Wissenschaften (1700) were founded.


belief that the universe consists of small indivisible particles of matter which have primary and secondary qualities

Partitions of Poland (1772, 1793, 1795)

Poland divided between Russia, Austria, and Prussia; changed the balance of Europe as a whole; Russia, Austria, and Prussia progressed passed France


French regional courts dominated by hereditary nobles. The Parlement of Paris claimed the right to register royal decrees before they could become law.

Robert Clive (1725-1774)

The governor of Bengal, increased Britain's political power, becomes the Lord in 1760, 1760 returns to India and build up Britain's military and economic power, accused of taking bribes, acquitted, but committed suicide because of depression, fought in th


Britain's law-making assembly of representatives that makes laws for the nation

William Pitt

The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.

Robert Walpole

Prime minister of Great Britain in the first half of the 1700s. His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect. Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister (1676-1745)

Seven Years' War (1756-1763)

global conflict between the European great powers; the French and Indian War was part of this larger conflict.

Frederick the Great (1712-1786)

King of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. Enlightened despot who enlarged Prussia by gaining land from Austria when Maria Theresa became Empress.

Cabinet system and Prime Minister

Leading ministers who were members of House of Commons and had support of majority of members, made common policy and conducted the business of the country. This also has a leader of the executive or legislative powers of the cabinet of a parliamentary go

Raison d'�tat (Reason of state)

belief that the interests of the state are paramount, even overriding laws and morals'

balance of power

distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong


a strong military state that emerged in Europe in the late 1600s and a ruling family who united holdings and created Prussia

Peter the Great (1672-1725)

Russian czar who enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.

Catherine the Great

This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia

Hereditary aristocracy

A form of government in which rule is in the hands of an "upper class" or aristocratic family. This inevitably means those with the power to hold wealth, and to define who shall remain in poverty and slavery.


the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people

Wage labor

a system of payment whereby workers are compensated on the bases of a wage not tied to the quality of the raw materials, accidents, or other exigencies in the production process

Bread riot

Women were angry that there was no bread or food, so they marched out to Versailles and forced the king to return to Paris and support the new government


an organized massacre of a particular ethnic group, in particular that of Jews in Russia or eastern Europe.

War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)

War fought between Prussia, Britain, France, and Russia over the throne of Austria. The French and Austrians should have been overpowering, but the strong Prussian army allied with the strong British navy and emerged victorious with the British gaining ma


Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kep


A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.

'state of nature'

The basis of natural rights philosophy; the condition of people living in a situation without man-made government, rules, or laws.

social progress

the belief that society will continually improve through human initiative


A group of edcated, aristocratic women in eighteenth-century France who supported and sponsored Enlightenment and its leading thinkers.

Voltaire (1694-1778)

French philosophe and voluminous author of essays and letters, particularly known for the work of "Candide" which was a novel criticizing the society of the time; championed the enlightened principles of reason, progress, toleration, and individual libert


Published work of many philosophes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically.


Women of pronounced intellectual interests. It gained currency after 1750 as a result of its application to a London group of women of literary and intellectual tastes who held assemblies or conversations to which literary and ingenious men were invited.

Montesquieu (1689-1755)

He wrote The Persian Letters (1721) and The Spirit of the Laws (1748) and tried to use scientific method to find natural laws that govern the social and political relationships of human beings. He believed in the separation of powers and identified three

Francois Quesnay (1694-1774)

French economist; was the undisputed leader of the Physiocrats, the first systematic school of economic thought. Among its tenets were the economic and moral righteousness of laissez-faire policies and the notion that land was the ultimate source of all w

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

Philosophe who contributed to the Encyclopedia. Born into the working class unlike the others, felt isolated. Anticipates Socialism because he thinks of private property as the downfall of man. Roots of Romanticism because he elevates nature and its raw s

Adam Smith (1723-1790)

Scottish economist who wrote "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations"; opposed mercantilist policies; advocated free trade and "the Invisible Hand of competition

Julien de La Mettrie (1709-1751)

Believed that humans were machines that differed from other animals only in complexity. He believed that so-called mental experiences are nothing but movements of particles in the brain. He also believed that accepting materialism would result in a better


A popular Enlightenment era belief that there is a God, but that God isn't involved in people's lives or in revealing truths to prophets.

Baron d'Holbach (1723-1789)

Wrote "System of Nature". Atheist, most famous for writing against religion. Believes that all of our actions are determined by past events and experience which we have no control over.


This was a movement within Lutheranism that revived Protestantism that called for an emotional relationship, allowed for the priesthood of all believers, and the Christian rebirth in everyday affairs


A religion founded by John Wesley. Insisted strict self-discipline and a methodical approach to religious study and observance. Emphasized an intense personal salvation and a life of thrift, abstinence, and hard work.

David Hume (1711-1776)

Scottish philosopher whose skeptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses

Emmanuel Kant (1724-1804)

one of the last major Enlightenment thinkers; stated that big philosophical questions could not be answered by reason alone; insisted that moral freedom could be achieved only by living in society and obeying its laws

Enlightened absolutism

trait of European rulers who embraced many of the philosophes' reforms, monarchical government dedicated to rational strengthening of central absolutist administration at cost of lesser political power centers

Maria Theresa and Joseph II

First and only female of the Habsburg dynasty. She was Archduchess of Austria, and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia and ruler of other territories from 1740 to her death. She also became the Holy Roman Empress when her husband was elected Holy Roman Emperor.


A style of art and architecture that emerged in the later 18th century. Part of a general revival of interest in classical cultures, Neoclassicism was characterized by the utilization of themes and styles from ancient Greece and Rome.


Very elaborate and ornate (in decorating or metaphorically, as in speech and writing); relating to a highly ornate style of art and architecture in 18th-century France

Middle-class Realism

materialist themes and attitudes that influenced art as painters depicted the lives of ordinary people and drew attention to social problems. *Ex: Honor� Daumier, Gustave Courbet, Jean-Francois Millet