Preschoolers and early childhood 3 to 6 years & Middle Childhood 6 to 12 years

between what ages do approximately 45 new epiphyses emerge in various parts of the skeleton

2 to 6

between what ages are all primary teeth lost and replaced?

6 and 12

how does malnutrition affect the presence of permanent teeth?

delays it

how does obesity affect the presence of permanent teeth?

accelerates it

how can tobacco smoke affect children and their teeth

lower immune system and contribute to tooth decay

between 2 and 6 how does brain size change

70% to 90% of adult size

o By 4 to 5 years old, parts of the cerebral cortex has what that results in a very high energy need

over-produced synapses

By 8 to 10 years old cognitive capacities become more what?

localized into distinct neural systems that themselves become interconnected to support the child's advancing abilities

What does Development of HandednessReflect?

the greater capacity of the individual's dominant cerebral hemisphere to carry out skilled motor action

How does lateralization differ between a right hand dominant and a left hand dominant individual?

brains of L-handed individuals tends to be less strongly lateralized

what is the strongest of complex skills that require extensive training

development of handedness

Left-handed or mixed-dominant young people tend to have increased speed of what? and Tend to develop outstanding what compared to right handed peers

flexibility in thinking verbal and mathematical talents

What 2 physical functions does the cerebellum aid in?

balance and control of body movements

What 3 cognitive skills does does the cerebellum support?


What occurs between the cerebellum and cerebral cortex in through preschool and what does it result in?

fibers connecting the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex grow and myelinate resulting in increased motor coordination

What does the reticular formation do?

maintains alertness and consciousness

Neurons in the reticular formation send off many fibers to the prefrontal cortex contributing to what?

improvements in sustained, controlled attention

Amygdala aids in what?

processing of novelty and emotional information

Connections btw. amygdala & prefrontal cortex for emotional regulation continues until what age


What is the hippocampus vital for?

for memory and spatial imaging that help us find our way

how does the hippocampus lateralize?

toward a greater Right sided activation

between what ages does peak production of synapses and myelination in the corpus callosum occur?

3 to 6

What motor and cognitive functions does the corpus callosum support?

supports smooth coordination of movements on both sides of the body supports integration of aspects of thinking, ex., perception, attention, memory, language, and problem solving

· Agenesis of the corpus callosum-

rare congenital birth defect when there is a complete or partial absence of the corpus callosum

· Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum

-malformation of CC

· Hypogenesis of the corpus callosum

`-partial formation of CC·

Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum

-under-development of CC

Growth hormone (GH) is Necessary for what? What can lack of GH result in?

Necessary development of almost all body tissuesLack of GH can cause pituitary dwarfism which can result in child's mature height only reaching 4 to 4 ½ feet tall

what is the function of Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)?

Prompts the thyroid gland to release the hormone; Thyroxine,

What is Thyroxine is necessary for?

brain development and for the GH to work properly in growth development

Infants born with inadequate thyroxine must receive it at once or what will occur?

experience intellectual disability- Once the most rapid period of brain development is complete, the central nervous system is no longer affected

how is growth affected in Children with too little thyroxine

grow at a below average rate

what are the most common deficiencies in preschool years?

essential nutrients: ironzinccalciumvitamin AVitamin C

why is iron important

to prevent anemia

why is calcium important?

to support development of bones and teeth

why is zinc important?

to support the immune system, neural communication, cell duplication

why is vitamin A important

to help , maintain eyes, skin, internal organs

why is vitamin C important?

to facilitate iron absorption, wound healing

what are the leading cause of childhood mortality

Unintentional injuries

What is the leading cause and second leading cause of death for infants?

soffocation and MVA

What is the leading cause and second leading cause of death for toddlers

drowning and MVA

What is the leading cause and second leading cause of death for school age children

MVA and bicycle accidents

o Independent mobility increased balanceo Walks up stairs, alternating feeto Walks down stairs, leading with one footo Runs more smoothly; precisiono Balances on one foot ~5 secondso Throws and catches (mostly trapping w/body)o Pedals and steers tricycleo Jumps (horizontal) and hops, flexing upper body while doing ito Steps over obstacles on the flooro Kicks stationary ball

Gross motor development for 3 to 4 years old

o Walks down stairs, alternating feeto Runs more smoothlyo Gallops and skips with one foot (maybe awkward)o Throws ball w/ increased body rotation & transfer of wt. from one foot to the othero Catches ball with hands onlyo Rides tricycle or bicycle w/or wo training wheels rapidly, steers smoothlyo Kicks moving ball (can kick it if you roll the ball to them)o Balances on one foot 5 to 10 secondso Walk on balance beam

Gross motor development 4 to 5 years old

o Increased running speed and fluidity, and can change directionso Gallops and engages in true skippingo Mature throwing and catching patterno Rides bicycle w/o training wheels (by age 6)o Can do sit upso Walks down stairs carrying an object; alternating feeto Begins to participate in team sportso Drop and catch a tennis ballo Hops on one foot consecutive times w/balance

Gross motor development 5 to 6 years old

for gross motor development at what point are all skills are performed with greater speed and endurance and Significant improvements in balance and motor skills coordination

6 years old: end of early childhood

o Buttons/unbuttons large buttonso Self-feeds w/o assistance (fingers or roughly w/ utensils)o Snips or cuts across paper with scissors (can't cut on a line or cut out shape)o Copies common shapes; gestalt presento Draw a person, lacks detailo Stacks 10 blockso Strings beadso Immature tripod grasp of pencil/crayono Opens doorso Puts key in door lock

3 to 4 years old

o Uses fork effectivelyo Cuts out on line; square, circle, triangleo Increased accuracy in coping common shapeso Folds paper in half edges meetingo Strings beads in sequence/patterno Button/unbutton various sized buttonso Able to manage other closures; zipperso Begins to print name; may copy or traceo Colors within the lines for ¾ of space w/o crossing the lines more than 2 times

4 to 5 years old

o Uses knife to cut soft foodo Begins tying shoes; may not be tighto Draws a person with 6 partso Copies some numbers and simple wordso Strings small beadso Prints nameo Reproduces color and designo Grasp pencil/crayon btw. thumb and pad of index finger other 3 fingers secure against the palmo Touches each finger to thumb in 8 seconds

5 to 6 years old

o Significant improvement in printing their name legiblyo May write some letters backwardso Shoe tying should be mastered by this ageo Greater precision with fine motor manipulation activities across the board


By age 6 what are the primary differences in motor development between boys and girls?

Boys are ahead in skills that emphasize force and powerGirls have better fine motor skills and gross motor skills that require good balance and foot movement

between what ages do children become self-sufficient at dressing and feeding

early childhood 3-6

What is the most complex self-help skill during early childhood and when is it mastered by?

shoe tying, mastered be age 6

Piaget's view and term versus Vygotsky's view and term of a child talking to themselves?

Piaget called it "Egocentric Speech"- young children have difficulty taking the perspective of others and therefore talk to themselves.Vygotsky calls it "Private Speech"- children use this to help them work through difficult tasks that they would likely need help to complete


adjusting the assistance offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance; helps to foster a preschoolers' executive functioning skills

by the end of what age have complex grammatical forms been acquired and over-regularization may be used?

early childhood

By what age do children adapt their speech to their listener's age, sex, and social status


what is Fast-mapping and at what age does it begin?

ability to connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter but not at the level of an adult; begins as early as age 2

What is Pragmatics and at what age does it begin?

the practical social side of language; when child learn to engage in effective and appropriate communication-begins as early as age 2


the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values than an individual believes defines them

By age 5 most do not have the ability to describe themselves as "I'm helpful" or "I'm shy" due to what?

lack of cognitive maturity

Define Self-Esteem, why is This aspect of self-development is important

The judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgmentsit is important because it affects our emotional experiences, future behavior, and long-term psychological adjustment

Between the ages of 2 to 6 children make what 3 strides in gaining emotional competence

1. they gain an understanding for being able to talk about feelings and to respond appropriately to others' emotional signals2. become better at self-regulation3. experience self-conscious emotions and empathy

By what age are children are able to correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions and what do their explanations tend to be based on

4 to 5 based on external states rather than internal

By what age can children verbalize strategies to alleviate negative emotion related to specific situations

3 to 4;

Define Proactive aggression and Reactive aggression

Proactive aggression- most common-an act used to fulfill a need or desire and unemotionally attack a person to achieve their goal§ Reactive aggression- an angry, defensive response and is meant to hurt another person

Body growth from 6 to 12 for girls versus boys

6-8 girls shorter9 girls taller12 boys tallergirls =more fatboys=more muscle

Insufficient intake of what 2 essential nutrients are related to poor ability to concentrate and can reduce intellectual test performance

iron and folate

Persistent malnutrition from infancy to early childhood can result in what?

permanent physical and mental changes

What is the most common vision problem in middle childhood

o Myopia or nearsightness

What health condition becomes less common in middle childhood

middle ear infections

what is the Most common chronic illness and most frequent cause of school absence during middle childhood


What is the screen time recommendation by AAP for ages less than 18 months, 2 to 5 years, and over 6?

less than 18 months - avoid 2 to 5 years - 1 hour per dayover 6 limited and monitured

what is the most effective at controlling obesity


what is the leading cause of permanent disability and death among school-aged children

head injuries

improved motor skills in middle childhood reflect gains in what 4 areas of motor capabilities

1. flexibility2. balance3. agility4. force

middle childhood physical fitness recommendation

minimum 60 minutes mod to vigorous aerobic activity· Include muscle strengthening at least 3x per week· Include bone strengthening at least 3x per week

Significant gains in fine motor skills that are especially evident in writing and drawing skills occur in what age frame?

middle childhood

at what age do you seen fine motor skills incuding starting cursive

8 years

at what age do children start keyboarding


at what age do children have increased ability to write on unlined paper, writing is more fluid and automatic, increased ability to use adult tools and skills such a sewing

11 years +

age for o Independent dressingo Independent in the restroom including clean upo Masters shoe tyingo Masters buttons, zipperso Uses proper amount of toothpasteo Blows nose independentlyo Baths and showers with reminderso Remembers to wash/dry hands after toileting


age for o Independent showeringo Independent toileting day and nighto Independent getting self to sleepo Packing a bag for school or other outing; w/ promptingo Telling timeo Self-feeding w/o difficultyo Preparing simple meals; cerealo Opening lunch boxes, zip lock bags, liquid containers

6 to 7

age for o Showering independentlyo Independent with personal hygiene; hair, teetho Telling timeo Preparing simple meals; making a sandwicho Understanding money conceptso Independent in doing household chores

7 to 8

Decentration and what age frame does in occur

ability to focus on several aspects of a problem and relating them vs centering on one aspectmiddle childhood


ability to organize items along a quantitative dimension, length or weight

Children with learning difficulties in reading and math often have what type of deficits?

working memory deficits

at what age do children begin to grasp irony and sarcasm; understanding of idioms

Age 8

middle childhood falls into what stage of eriksons psychsocial development?

Industry versus Inferiority (6-12)

between what ages is there a major change in self-concept and what 3 things characterize this change?

1. Children begin to describe themselves based on competencies2. Express both positive and negative personality traits3. Use Social Comparisons- judgment of their appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others

self-esteem in preschoolers versus school-aged children

school-aged children have a more realistic self-esteem

By age 6 to 7 school-aged children have formed at least what four broad self-evaluations:

academic competence social competence physical/athletic competence physical appearance

By what age do most children shift btw. problem-centered coping and emotion-centered coping


between what ages do children learn that under certain circumstances such as self-defense it is okay to hit another individual

7 and 11

By what age do children no longer say that truth telling is always good and lying is always bad; but understand prosocial and antisocial intentions and context of the behavior

7 to 8