between what ages do approximately 45 new epiphyses emerge in various parts of the skeleton
2 to 6
between what ages are all primary teeth lost and replaced?
6 and 12
how does malnutrition affect the presence of permanent teeth?
how does obesity affect the presence of permanent teeth?
how can tobacco smoke affect children and their teeth
lower immune system and contribute to tooth decay
between 2 and 6 how does brain size change
70% to 90% of adult size
o By 4 to 5 years old, parts of the cerebral cortex has what that results in a very high energy need
By 8 to 10 years old cognitive capacities become more what?
localized into distinct neural systems that themselves become interconnected to support the child's advancing abilities
What does Development of HandednessReflect?
the greater capacity of the individual's dominant cerebral hemisphere to carry out skilled motor action
How does lateralization differ between a right hand dominant and a left hand dominant individual?
brains of L-handed individuals tends to be less strongly lateralized
what is the strongest of complex skills that require extensive training
development of handedness
Left-handed or mixed-dominant young people tend to have increased speed of what? and Tend to develop outstanding what compared to right handed peers
flexibility in thinking verbal and mathematical talents
What 2 physical functions does the cerebellum aid in?
balance and control of body movements
What 3 cognitive skills does does the cerebellum support?
What occurs between the cerebellum and cerebral cortex in through preschool and what does it result in?
fibers connecting the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex grow and myelinate resulting in increased motor coordination
What does the reticular formation do?
maintains alertness and consciousness
Neurons in the reticular formation send off many fibers to the prefrontal cortex contributing to what?
improvements in sustained, controlled attention
Amygdala aids in what?
processing of novelty and emotional information
Connections btw. amygdala & prefrontal cortex for emotional regulation continues until what age
What is the hippocampus vital for?
for memory and spatial imaging that help us find our way
how does the hippocampus lateralize?
toward a greater Right sided activation
between what ages does peak production of synapses and myelination in the corpus callosum occur?
3 to 6
What motor and cognitive functions does the corpus callosum support?
supports smooth coordination of movements on both sides of the body supports integration of aspects of thinking, ex., perception, attention, memory, language, and problem solving
· Agenesis of the corpus callosum-
rare congenital birth defect when there is a complete or partial absence of the corpus callosum
· Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum
-malformation of CC
· Hypogenesis of the corpus callosum
`-partial formation of CC·
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
-under-development of CC
Growth hormone (GH) is Necessary for what? What can lack of GH result in?
Necessary development of almost all body tissuesLack of GH can cause pituitary dwarfism which can result in child's mature height only reaching 4 to 4 ½ feet tall
what is the function of Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)?
Prompts the thyroid gland to release the hormone; Thyroxine,
What is Thyroxine is necessary for?
brain development and for the GH to work properly in growth development
Infants born with inadequate thyroxine must receive it at once or what will occur?
experience intellectual disability- Once the most rapid period of brain development is complete, the central nervous system is no longer affected
how is growth affected in Children with too little thyroxine
grow at a below average rate
what are the most common deficiencies in preschool years?
essential nutrients: ironzinccalciumvitamin AVitamin C
why is iron important
to prevent anemia
why is calcium important?
to support development of bones and teeth
why is zinc important?
to support the immune system, neural communication, cell duplication
why is vitamin A important
to help , maintain eyes, skin, internal organs
why is vitamin C important?
to facilitate iron absorption, wound healing
what are the leading cause of childhood mortality
What is the leading cause and second leading cause of death for infants?
soffocation and MVA
What is the leading cause and second leading cause of death for toddlers
drowning and MVA
What is the leading cause and second leading cause of death for school age children
MVA and bicycle accidents
o Independent mobility increased balanceo Walks up stairs, alternating feeto Walks down stairs, leading with one footo Runs more smoothly; precisiono Balances on one foot ~5 secondso Throws and catches (mostly trapping w/body)o Pedals and steers tricycleo Jumps (horizontal) and hops, flexing upper body while doing ito Steps over obstacles on the flooro Kicks stationary ball
Gross motor development for 3 to 4 years old
o Walks down stairs, alternating feeto Runs more smoothlyo Gallops and skips with one foot (maybe awkward)o Throws ball w/ increased body rotation & transfer of wt. from one foot to the othero Catches ball with hands onlyo Rides tricycle or bicycle w/or wo training wheels rapidly, steers smoothlyo Kicks moving ball (can kick it if you roll the ball to them)o Balances on one foot 5 to 10 secondso Walk on balance beam
Gross motor development 4 to 5 years old
o Increased running speed and fluidity, and can change directionso Gallops and engages in true skippingo Mature throwing and catching patterno Rides bicycle w/o training wheels (by age 6)o Can do sit upso Walks down stairs carrying an object; alternating feeto Begins to participate in team sportso Drop and catch a tennis ballo Hops on one foot consecutive times w/balance
Gross motor development 5 to 6 years old
for gross motor development at what point are all skills are performed with greater speed and endurance and Significant improvements in balance and motor skills coordination
6 years old: end of early childhood
o Buttons/unbuttons large buttonso Self-feeds w/o assistance (fingers or roughly w/ utensils)o Snips or cuts across paper with scissors (can't cut on a line or cut out shape)o Copies common shapes; gestalt presento Draw a person, lacks detailo Stacks 10 blockso Strings beadso Immature tripod grasp of pencil/crayono Opens doorso Puts key in door lock
3 to 4 years old
o Uses fork effectivelyo Cuts out on line; square, circle, triangleo Increased accuracy in coping common shapeso Folds paper in half edges meetingo Strings beads in sequence/patterno Button/unbutton various sized buttonso Able to manage other closures; zipperso Begins to print name; may copy or traceo Colors within the lines for ¾ of space w/o crossing the lines more than 2 times
4 to 5 years old
o Uses knife to cut soft foodo Begins tying shoes; may not be tighto Draws a person with 6 partso Copies some numbers and simple wordso Strings small beadso Prints nameo Reproduces color and designo Grasp pencil/crayon btw. thumb and pad of index finger other 3 fingers secure against the palmo Touches each finger to thumb in 8 seconds
5 to 6 years old
o Significant improvement in printing their name legiblyo May write some letters backwardso Shoe tying should be mastered by this ageo Greater precision with fine motor manipulation activities across the board
By age 6 what are the primary differences in motor development between boys and girls?
Boys are ahead in skills that emphasize force and powerGirls have better fine motor skills and gross motor skills that require good balance and foot movement
between what ages do children become self-sufficient at dressing and feeding
early childhood 3-6
What is the most complex self-help skill during early childhood and when is it mastered by?
shoe tying, mastered be age 6
Piaget's view and term versus Vygotsky's view and term of a child talking to themselves?
Piaget called it "Egocentric Speech"- young children have difficulty taking the perspective of others and therefore talk to themselves.Vygotsky calls it "Private Speech"- children use this to help them work through difficult tasks that they would likely need help to complete
adjusting the assistance offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance; helps to foster a preschoolers' executive functioning skills
by the end of what age have complex grammatical forms been acquired and over-regularization may be used?
By what age do children adapt their speech to their listener's age, sex, and social status
what is Fast-mapping and at what age does it begin?
ability to connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter but not at the level of an adult; begins as early as age 2
What is Pragmatics and at what age does it begin?
the practical social side of language; when child learn to engage in effective and appropriate communication-begins as early as age 2
the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values than an individual believes defines them
By age 5 most do not have the ability to describe themselves as "I'm helpful" or "I'm shy" due to what?
lack of cognitive maturity
Define Self-Esteem, why is This aspect of self-development is important
The judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgmentsit is important because it affects our emotional experiences, future behavior, and long-term psychological adjustment
Between the ages of 2 to 6 children make what 3 strides in gaining emotional competence
1. they gain an understanding for being able to talk about feelings and to respond appropriately to others' emotional signals2. become better at self-regulation3. experience self-conscious emotions and empathy
By what age are children are able to correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions and what do their explanations tend to be based on
4 to 5 based on external states rather than internal
By what age can children verbalize strategies to alleviate negative emotion related to specific situations
3 to 4;
Define Proactive aggression and Reactive aggression
Proactive aggression- most common-an act used to fulfill a need or desire and unemotionally attack a person to achieve their goal§ Reactive aggression- an angry, defensive response and is meant to hurt another person
Body growth from 6 to 12 for girls versus boys
6-8 girls shorter9 girls taller12 boys tallergirls =more fatboys=more muscle
Insufficient intake of what 2 essential nutrients are related to poor ability to concentrate and can reduce intellectual test performance
iron and folate
Persistent malnutrition from infancy to early childhood can result in what?
permanent physical and mental changes
What is the most common vision problem in middle childhood
o Myopia or nearsightness
What health condition becomes less common in middle childhood
middle ear infections
what is the Most common chronic illness and most frequent cause of school absence during middle childhood
What is the screen time recommendation by AAP for ages less than 18 months, 2 to 5 years, and over 6?
less than 18 months - avoid 2 to 5 years - 1 hour per dayover 6 limited and monitured
what is the most effective at controlling obesity
FAMILY BASED PROGRAMS AND FOCUS ON WEIGHT-RELATED BEHAVIORS
what is the leading cause of permanent disability and death among school-aged children
improved motor skills in middle childhood reflect gains in what 4 areas of motor capabilities
1. flexibility2. balance3. agility4. force
middle childhood physical fitness recommendation
minimum 60 minutes mod to vigorous aerobic activity· Include muscle strengthening at least 3x per week· Include bone strengthening at least 3x per week
Significant gains in fine motor skills that are especially evident in writing and drawing skills occur in what age frame?
at what age do you seen fine motor skills incuding starting cursive
at what age do children start keyboarding
at what age do children have increased ability to write on unlined paper, writing is more fluid and automatic, increased ability to use adult tools and skills such a sewing
11 years +
age for o Independent dressingo Independent in the restroom including clean upo Masters shoe tyingo Masters buttons, zipperso Uses proper amount of toothpasteo Blows nose independentlyo Baths and showers with reminderso Remembers to wash/dry hands after toileting
age for o Independent showeringo Independent toileting day and nighto Independent getting self to sleepo Packing a bag for school or other outing; w/ promptingo Telling timeo Self-feeding w/o difficultyo Preparing simple meals; cerealo Opening lunch boxes, zip lock bags, liquid containers
6 to 7
age for o Showering independentlyo Independent with personal hygiene; hair, teetho Telling timeo Preparing simple meals; making a sandwicho Understanding money conceptso Independent in doing household chores
7 to 8
Decentration and what age frame does in occur
ability to focus on several aspects of a problem and relating them vs centering on one aspectmiddle childhood
ability to organize items along a quantitative dimension, length or weight
Children with learning difficulties in reading and math often have what type of deficits?
working memory deficits
at what age do children begin to grasp irony and sarcasm; understanding of idioms
middle childhood falls into what stage of eriksons psychsocial development?
Industry versus Inferiority (6-12)
between what ages is there a major change in self-concept and what 3 things characterize this change?
1. Children begin to describe themselves based on competencies2. Express both positive and negative personality traits3. Use Social Comparisons- judgment of their appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others
self-esteem in preschoolers versus school-aged children
school-aged children have a more realistic self-esteem
By age 6 to 7 school-aged children have formed at least what four broad self-evaluations:
academic competence social competence physical/athletic competence physical appearance
By what age do most children shift btw. problem-centered coping and emotion-centered coping
between what ages do children learn that under certain circumstances such as self-defense it is okay to hit another individual
7 and 11
By what age do children no longer say that truth telling is always good and lying is always bad; but understand prosocial and antisocial intentions and context of the behavior
7 to 8