the heat balance between heat lost and heat produced by the body
what are ways heat is lost?
what are ways heat is produced?
metabolism of foodmuscle and gland activity
a constant state of natural fluid balance within the body
what is the range of oral temperatures?
97.6°F - 99.6°F
what is the range for aural (tympanic) temperatures?
97.6°F - 99.6°F (A)
what is the range for rectal temperatures?
98.6°F - 100.6°F (R)
what is the range for temporal temperatures?
98.6°F - 100.6°F (TA)
what is the range for axillary temperatures?
96.6°F - 98.6°F (Ax)
fahrenheit to celsius
(F - 32) x 0.5556 = C
celcius to fahrenheit
(C x 1.8) + 32 = F
how do variations in temperature occur?
individual differencestime of day (evening=higher , morning=lower) part of body where temp is taken
what temperature is the most common?
oral (mouth); most convenient and comfortable
what is the most accurate temperature?
rectal(rectum); due to being an internal measurement
what is the least accurate temperature?
axillary(armpit); due to being an external measurement
what does aural (ear) temperatures measure?
the thermal, infrared energy radiating from the blood vessels in the tympanic membrane
what does temporal (temporal artery/forehead) temperatures measure?
measures the temperature inside the body or bloodstream (may also be as accurate as the rectal temperatures)
what are factors that can increase body temperatures?
illnessinfectionexerciseexcitementhigh environmental temperatures
what are factors that can decrease body temperature?
starvation/fastingsleepdecreased muscle activitymouth breathingcold environmental temperatures
low body temperature
what is hypothermia caused by?
body temp below 95°F (R)prolonged exposure to colddeath occurs if body temp reaches below 93°F (R)
elevated body temperature (aka pyrexia or febrile)
how is a fever caused?
infection/injurybody temp above 101°F (R)
high body temperature
what is hyperthermia caused by?
body temp above 104°F (R)prolonged exposure to hot tempsbrain damage serious infectionstemp above 106°F (R)can cause convulsions or death
rarely used due to mercury content
what thermometer is long, slender and has a blue tip?
what thermometer is short, stubby and has a red tip?
what is an electric thermometer?
can take oral, rectal and axillary temps uses disposable plastic probe covers
what is an aural (tympanic) thermometer?
records aural tempsuses disposable plastic probe coversinserts into the auditorial canal
how do you record a temperature?
remove the decimal and move the tenth place up (looks like an exponent)
what notation goes at the end of a oral temperature?
what notation goes at the end of a rectal temperature?
what notation goes at the end of an axillary temperature?
what notation goes at the end of an aural temperature?
(A) may also see (T) or (Tym)
what notation goes at the end of a temporal temperature?
what do you have to do before/during an oral temperature?
make sure to ask patient if they had anything to ear/drink or if they have smoked in the last 15 minutes close the patients lips around the probecaution the patient against biting the probe
what do you have to do before/during a rectal temperature?
never leave the room while the thermometer is in placealways hold the thermometer while it's in the rectum
what do you do before/during an axillary temperature?
dry the armpit firstposition the patients arm over their chest (hold in place if needed)
what do you do before/during an aural temperature?
pull the ear pinna straight back for infants under the age of 1pull the ear pinna back and up for all children/adults
what do you do before/during a temporal temperature?
dry the foreheadmake sure the forehead isn't covered by hair, wig and hatif a patient is laying on their side, dont use side of head next to the pillow