Unit 7 Public Policy

beleaguered

被煩擾的;處於困境的 having a lot of problems or difficulties The arrival of the fresh medical supplies was a welcome sight for the beleaguered doctors working in the refugee camps.

an overarching goal

首要目標 most important goal, because of including or affecting all other areas The overarching goals of a COVID-19 vaccine policy should be to save lives and reduce transmission.

avert

防止,避免 to prevent something bad from happening The 2015 Paris climate accord is a global pact forged to avert the threat of catastrophic climate change.

a global catastrophe

全球災難 a worldwide disaster Global catastrophes, such as nuclear war, pandemics and ecological collapse threaten the sustainability of human civilization.

despite its limitations

儘管其局限性 If someone or something has limitations, that person or thing is not as good as he, she, or it could be.Despite its limitations, remote instruction has demonstrated that it is possible to take a class from home.

a semblance of peace

貌似和平 If there is a semblance of something, it appears to exist, even though this may be a false impression. The government is attempting to keep the semblance of peace in such chaos period.

in danger of

處於危險之中 in a situation that something unpleasant will happen, or someone may be harmed or killedThe world is in danger of missing the Paris climate target, the climate summit warned.

become irrelevant

變得不相干,不重要 not related to what is being discussed or considered and therefore not important The relevance of any development oriented research at any particular time aimed at addressing a particular problem lies in it becoming irrelevant after policy has been implemented.

a united front

統一陣線、團結一致 an appearance of agreement The party's main failing has been their inability to present a united front to the people.

be caught between

夾在...之間 to be in a very difficult situation and to have to make a hard decision Taiwan, caught between the U.S. and China, is likely to face more challenge.

a power struggle

權力鬥爭 a situation in which two or more people or groups compete for control in a particular sphere. The power struggles occurring today between the United States and China is deteriorating.

hegemony

(尤指國家的)霸權,支配權,領導權 (especially of countries) the position of being the strongest and most powerful and therefore able to control others. The three nations competed for regional hegemony.

the rapid rise of

...的快速崛起 the quick rise of The rapid rise of the global conflicts shows that the UN is weaker than it should be.

a dogmatic view

武斷的;自以為是的式觀點If you are dogmatic, you are certain that you are right and that everyone else is wrong.

lose its effectiveness

失去它的效力no longer effectiveThe UN worked well at first but gradually lost its effectiveness.

peace and security

和平與安全peace: freedom from war and violence, especially when people live and work together happily without disagreementssecurity: protection of a person, building, organization, or country against threats such as crime or attacks by foreign countriesThe UN Security Council (UNSC) is the organ with the primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security.

economic crisis

經濟危機An economic crisis is a severe and sudden upset in any part of the economy. It could be a stock market crash, a spike in inflation or unemployment, or a series of bank failures. They have severe effects even though they don't always lead to a recession.The global economic crisis was especially devastating to developing countries.

pandemic

大流行病(of a disease) existing in almost all of an area or in almost all of a group of people, animals, or plantsThe COVID-19 pandemic spread to the United Kingdom in late January 2020.

show signs of

顯示...的跡象to have or show indications that mean that something else exists, is true, or will happenThe city's education system is showing signs of improvement.

put bluntly

坦白地說used to describe the way you are expressing an event or opinionTo put it bluntly, the UN is facing a big challenge from its members.

blunt

鈍的,不鋒利的A blunt pencil, knife, etc. is not sharp and therefore not able to write, cut, etc. well.The scissors for children came with blunt ends.

food shortages

糧食短缺lack of foodAmid the pandemic, one in eight Americans say their household has experienced a food shortage.

acute hunger

嚴重饑餓Acute food insecurity, or acute hunger, is when a person's inability to consume adequate food puts their lives or livelihoods in immediate danger.The COVID-19 pandemic will see more than a quarter of a billion people suffering acute hunger by the end of the year, according to new figures from the World Food Programme (WFP).

exacerbate

使惡化;使加重;使加劇to make something that is already bad even worse:This attack will exacerbate the already tense relations between the two countries.

be estimated to be

估計roughly calculated or approximateThe emergency and recovery funds for creative industries by British government is estimated to be effective.

be displaced by

因....流離失所having been forced to leave your home, for example by a war or dangerous eventThis policy aims to help international refugees who displaced by war.

come as no surprise

不足為奇will not be surprising [for someone] to learn [something]It came as no surprise that the president had been lying.

eliminate inequities

消除不平等to remove a situation that is not fair, or something that is not fair in a situation.Eliminating health inequities requires a holistic approach whereby the health impacts of all government policies and societal practices are recognized and addressed.

poverty, gender bias, and illiteracy

貧窮、性別偏見和文盲poverty: the condition of being extremely poorgender bias: unfair difference in the way women and men are treatedilliteracy: a lack of the ability to read and writePoverty, gender bias and illiteracy are issues included in sustainable development goals.

imperil

危及、使陷入危險to put something or someone at risk or in danger of being harmed or destroyedA police raid would imperil the lives of the hostages.

evident

顯然易見的;明白的,明顯的easily seen or understoodThe problems have been evident for quite some time.

forum

(尤指討論與公共利益相關的問題的)論壇,討論會a situation or meeting in which people can talk about a problem or matter especially of public interestThe UN Forum is the world's largest annual gathering on business and human rights with more than 2,000 participants from government, business, community groups and civil society, law firms, investor organisations, UN bodies, national human rights institutions, trade unions, academia and the media.

be off track

偏離軌道to start talking about something that is not part of what you should be talking aboutThe pandemic has set the ambitious, but shaky, Sustainable Development Goals even further off track for completion by 2030.

multilateralism

多邊主義a situation in which several different countries or organizations work together to achieve something or deal with a problemThe foreign policy stresses the importance of multilateralism.

a tenet of

...的宗旨one of the principles on which a belief or theory is basedThe UN is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members.

charter

憲章a formal statement of the rights of a country's people, or of an organization or a particular social group, that is agreed by or demanded from a ruler or governmentThe government has produced a Citizen's /Parents' / Patients' Charter.

collide with

與...衝突(especially of moving objects) to hit something violentlySometimes rising countries like China, India and Brazil collide with international organizations that still operating from a post-World War II landscape.

national sovereignty

國家主權The supreme, absolute, and uncontrollable power by which an independent state is governed and from which all specific political powers are derived; the intentional independence of a state, combined with the right and power of regulating its internal affairs without foreign interference.The UN respects the principles of national sovereignty.

nonintervention

(n.) 不干涉the practice of refusing to get involved in a situation, especially in a disagreement between countries or within a countryThe policy of non-intervention is implemented by the UN.

intervene

干涉,干預;調停to intentionally become involved in a difficult situation in order to improve it or prevent it from getting worseThe Central Bank intervened in the currency markets today to try to stabilize the exchange rate.

evidence of

...的證據one or more reasons for believing that something is or is not true:Campaigners now have compelling documentary evidence of the human rights abuses that they had been alleging for several years.

genocide

大屠殺、種族滅絕*the murder of a whole group of people, especially a whole nation, race, or religious groupThe Genocide Convention was the first human rights treaty adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 9 December 1948.

atrocity

兇惡的行為,殘暴的行為an extremely cruel, violent, or shocking actThey are on trial for committing atrocities against the civilian population.

humanitarian interventions

人道干涉Humanitarian intervention has been defined as a state's use of military force against another state, with publicly stating its goal is to end human rights violations in that state.Humanitarian intervention should be understood to encompass... non-forcible methods, namely intervention undertaken without military force to alleviate mass human suffering within sovereign borders.

turn inward

向內轉The policy aimed at turning inward would lead to mounting economic tensions.

bode badly

壞預兆bode (v.)to be a negative sign of something that will happen in the future, usually something very good or badMoving back to tier 3 bodes badly for the pandemic in London.

embody

具體表現;體現to represent a quality or an idea exactlyAustralia's educational policies both embody and entrench low expectations of students.

the state of

...的狀況the situation of The country is in a state of uncertainty.

see the value of

看到...的價值notice the importance or worth of something for someoneNot all countries can see the value of multilateralism.

multilateral cooperation

多邊合作In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal. Multilateralism cooperation refers to the cooperation between multiple countries. The most important international organisations engaged in multilateral cooperation are the United Nations together with its specialised agencies and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

a humanitarian crisis

人道主義危機A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well-being of a community or large group of people. It may be an internal or external conflict and usually occurs throughout a large land area. Local, national and international responses are necessary in such events.The humanitarian crisis that Honduras is experiencing today adds to several forgotten and invisible emergencies, including sexual violence, which requires a priority medical response, and mental healthcare, which is insufficient or non-existent.