Education Final

Educational theorists offer a variety of definitions of curriculum and no single one is generally accepted. Some common definitions include:

-the subject matter taught to students -a course of study, or a systematic arrangement of courses-the planned educational experience offered by the school -the process teachers go through in selecting and organizing learning experiences for their students


everything that teachers teach and students learn in schools


the strategies teachers use to help reach learning goals in the curriculum

the explicit curriculum

or formal curriculum, is the stated curriculum found in textbooks, curriculum guides and standards, as well as other planned formal educational experiences. It includes everything you are expected to teach, everything students are expected to learn, and what schools are held accountable for.

The elementary curriculum focus strongly on

basic skills, such as reading, writing, and math.

If you choose to teach in elementary schools:

you'll have considerable autonomy in determining how topics in these areas are taught as well as how much time you'll devote to different topics.

Two important patterns in the elementary curriculum:

First, most elementary schools focus heavily on reading, writing and math. Second, more time on reading and math means less time for social studies, art, music, and other areas, such as PE. Elementary school teachers place little emphasis on computer use and computer skills.

Beginning in the second or third grade, many elementary schools specialize their instruction:

one teacher might be assigned to teach language arts while another focuses on math.

_________________ and __________________ is one advantage of specialization, the disadvantages include __________________ and _______________________ problems and spending less time with your own students.

Reduced planning, preparation time, logistical, coordination problems

Middle schools are specifically designed to help early adolescents:

make the sometimes-difficult transition from elementary to high school

Middle school curriculum is organized around:

specific content areas, and unlike in elementary schools, the content areas are each allocated the same amount of time

If a middle school designs its curriculum in a way that is consistent with "middle school philosophy" the school focuses on:

real-life issues that concern middle schoolers and an effort is made to connect different content areas.

The organization of junior high schools is similar to high schools and this organization influences the curriculum. Whereas one team of teachers in middle schools often have the same group of students, as you saw with Carrie and her colleagues,...

no such coordination exists in the curriculum in junior and high schools. The curriculum in these schools focuses on separate disciplines and becomes more specilized-some say it becomes more fragmented.

Critics ague that compartmentalizing the curriculum in this way

detracts from learning, because teaching and learning bear little resemblance to the world outside school. Instead they argue schools should offer ab integrated curriculum

integrated curriculum

also called interdisciplinary curriculum, in which concepts and skills from various disciplines are combined and related

In middle and secondary school, efforts have been made to formally

integrate topics within a content area. For example, in middle schools, students typically take general science in 6th, life science in 7th, and physical science in 8th. Some school integrate these content areas by having students relate topics from earth, life and physical science in each of the middle school years.For example, using energy as a focal point, students might study the sun as an energy source in earth science, food as a source of energy in the science, and nuclear power in physical science

An integrated curriculum has the following potential benefits:

-it increases the relevance of content by making connections among ideas explicit -it improves learning by increasing motivation -it promotes collaborative planning, which increases communication among teachers

Even the most ardent proponents acknowledge, however, that the process of integrating curriculum is

very demanding and time-consuming, and few teachers have the knowledge of content in different disciplines that is required to create effective integrated units. Also, in attempts to create links across content areas, teachers are often unable to help students develop a deep understanding of important concepts and bodies of knowledge in individual areas.

Curriculum integration is most popular at the ____________ level, where a single teacher can relate several topics, and at the _______________ school level, where teams of teachers periodically meet to interconnect content areas. It is least common at the high school level.

elementary, middle

The emphasis on ____________ and __________ this is so prominent in today's schools is likely to reduce interest on integrating curriculum at all levels.

standards and accountability

The 21st century Skills movement

promotes technology expertise as well as global awareness, civic literacy, critical thinking, and communication skills that people need to function effectively in the 21st century. Advocates continue to embrace core content in math, reading, writing, science, and social studies, but they also endorse more emphasis on learning skills, such as problem solving and critical thinking and life and career skills such as personal responsibility, initiative, and self-direction. Social and cross-cultural awareness also important because of our country's rapidly increasing diversity and the need for people who can function in a global economy-APPLE, MICROSOFT AND INTEL-support these skills- thinking they will make future workers more productive.

Recognizing the magnitude of the task ahead of them, promoters of 21st century Skills are recommending a

multipronged curriculum reform strategy that targets new standards, instruction, assessment, and professional-development opportunities for teachers. Their goal is to reorient the curriculum so that it prepares students for a technological future.

the current accountablility movement-

attempts to define the curriculum in terms of standards. What gets tested gets taught is a curriculum truism and advocates for a larger role of technology in classroom learning are worried that other content-related standards will push tech out of the curriculum

Because it is important to remain objective about what students should learn, I should be careful to avoid letting my attitudes and values influence decisions about what I teach.

False, its impossible for you to avoid having your attitudes and values influence your teaching

implicit curriculum

includes the unstated and sometimes unintended aspects of the curriculum. It consists of hidden messages you and your school send as children participate in school activities, and it will be heavily influenced by your attitudes and actions.

Implicit curriculum is also called hidden or informal curriculum:

it is reflected in the way you present your content, the classroom management routines and rules you establish, the way you treat students, the general climate of your classroom and the unstated values and priorities that shape the school day.

Decision I make about what not to teach are sometimes as important as the decisions about what to


Decisions i make about what not to teach are sometimes as important as the decision about what to teach.


Topics left out of the course of study are referred to as the

null curriculum

__________, a topic receiving increased attention today, is thought by many to be a critical fourth "R" and is considered a prime example of the null curriculum



consists of learning experiences that extend beyond the core of students' formal studies-including clubs, sports, school plays, and other activities that don't earn students academic credit.

students who participate in extracurricular activities derive a number of benefits:

-higher academic performance and attainment-reduced dropout rates -lower rates of substance abuse-less sexual activity among girls -better psychological adjustment, including higher self-esteem and reduced feelings of social isolation -reduced rates of delinquent behavior

School activities, such as clubs and sports, can provide positive outlets for students and are an essential part of schooling.


the most powerful and importance force influencing the curriculum is

you, the classroom teacher

Forces that influence the curriculum:

1. the teacher-making professional decisions about what is most important for your students to learn. 2. Standards and Accountablity- specifying what students should understand, which often determines curriculum content 3. The Federal Government-passing legislation and directing funding to meet national goals and priorities 4. Textbooks-presenting topics and traditionally make up the curriculum in the content area

BASIS FOR CURRICULUM-needs of individuals

Dominant Educational Philosophy: progressivism Advantages: -concern for individuals is placed at the heart of curriculum development -learner motivation is promotedDisadvantages: -efforts to respond to the special needs of each individual are virtually impossible-students may not be the best judges of their long-range needs, opting for shallow learning experiences

BASIS FOR CURRICULUM- needs of society

Dominant Educational Philosophy: Progressivism and Social Reconstructionism Advantages: -students learn to integrate info from a variety of sources -curriculum is relevant, contributing to learner motivation Disadvantages: -society's needs change rapidly, often making curriculum obsolete -learners may be steered into career choices too early, limiting long-range opportunities

BASIS FOR CURRICULUM-Academic Disciplines

Dominant Educational Philosophy: Essentialism and Perennialism Advantages: -research indicates that expertise and problem solving ability depend on knowledge -schools and teachers are being held accountable and accountablitity depends on discipline-based tests Disadvantages: -academic disciplines tend to artificially "compartmentalize" what students learn -students complain that traditional subjects are irrelevant

In response to these concerns about students' lack of knowledge, educators have establshed academic


what are standards?

statements that describe what students should know or be able to do at the end of a prescribed period of study, All the states have established standards.


is the process of requiring students to demonstrate understanding of the topics they study as measured by high-stakes tests

high-stakes tests

standardized tests that can determine whether or not students are promoted to the next grade level, or even graduate from high school with a standard diploma

The influence of standards, accountability, and high-stakes tests is so powerful that some districts create

teacher guides that specify topics, performance tasks, and even the number of class periods that should be devoted to specific topics.

Our federal government has a long and rich history of involvement in ed, and this role has increased rather than decreased over time. _____________________________, a key educational mandate of the George W. Bush administration, is on example of this increased federal role.

No CHILD Left Behind Act of 2001

The race to the top program, a $4.35 billion initiative created by

the Obama administration and designed to spur reforms in state and local district K-12 education.

The Fed Gov's efforts to influence school curricula dramatically increased in the 1950s when people began to view ed as an important vehicle for

accomplishing national goals

National Defense Education Act (1958)

made math, science, and foreign language high priorities

Economic Opportunity Act of 1964

increased emphasis on vocational training and teaching marketable skills.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin. Intended to provide all students with equal access to curriculum.

Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

Created Title I, designed to help disadvantaged children acquire basic skills.

Bilingual Education Act of 1968

Provided for teaching the curriculum in students' native languages as they gradually learned English.

Title IX (1972)

increased girls' participation in physical education and sports.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1975)

increased participation of learners with exceptionalities in the regular curriculum.

Environmental Education Act (1991)

stimulated the modern environmental education movement.

The Goals 2000: Educate America Act (1994)

Established goals to be met by American education by the year 2000.

No Child Left Behind Act (2001)

Requires states to establish standards for what learners should know and be able to do in different subjects and holds them accountable for students performance on tests linked to these standards.

Race to the Top (2009)

Part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, it is designed to spur reforms in state and local district k-12 education.

One of the provisions of the Race to the Top program stipulates that students' test scores will be an important factor in

teachers' evaluations

Teachers depend heavily on textbooks to

select content, sequence topics, and locate instructional activities

Other than standards, many experts believe that ________________ will be the most powerful influence on your curriculum decisions.


Reasons for using textbooks selectively include:

-student needs: the topics presented in textbooks may not be consistence with the specific needs of students, school, or district. Following a textbook too closely then fails to meet these needs. -scope: to appeal to a wide market, textbook publishers include a huge number of topics. Texts and curriculum guides often contain twice as much material as students can learn in the time available, and curriculum expects recommend that teachers select the most important concepts and skills to emphasize and concentrate on the quality of understanding rather than quantity of info presented . -Quality-textbooks sometimes are poorly written, lack adequate examples, are superficial, or even contain errors of fact.

Mike's curriculum planning decisions are significant for several reasons:

First, he was well aware of the standards his students were expected to meet, and his lesson was consistent with the standard. However, the standard had minimal effect on the way he approached the topic. Second, he used his textbook to supplement his activity, rather than use it as the primary source of info. Third, guiding a learning activity, such as this one, is very professionally satisfying.

Because standards and accountability are so important in today's schools, the important decisions about what I will teach are now out of my hands.

False, standards present general frameworks for you, but the most important decisions about curriculum and instruction remain in your hands.

Pros of A national Curriculum

-the rigor of standards varies significantly from state to state -students in countries such as Germany and Japan, have national standards and national exams, achieve higher than American students. -a national curriculum would provide stability and coherence

Cons of A National Curriculum

-it will create a massive and unwieldy federal bureaucracy-won't be responsive to regional differences and will ignore the needs of diverse students -no more rigorous

________________ has been a long-term controversial curriculum issue.

Sex Ed.

Sex Ed. is controversial for several reasons:

First, people can't agree on whether it should even be included in the school curriculum. Many, including religious, social and political conservatives insist that it should be the responsibilities of families or churches. They contend that sex is inextricably connected with personal, moral, and religious values and the proper place for sex ed is the home.

Proponents of sex ed counter with statistics, such as the following:

-By their 19th birthday, 7 out of 10 teens of both sexes have had sex -although teens in the US and Europe have similar levels of sexual activity, those in Europe are more likely use effective contracptive so they have a substantially lower pregnancy rates -the US teen pregnancy rate continues to be the highest in the developed world and more than twice as high as in Canada and Sweden

Sex ed should be taught in the home, and it should not be a topic that is addressed in schools.

Controversial, but research indicates that most parents and citizens in general advocate some form of sex ed in our nation's schools.

How should you respond to a student who says that cheating is no big deal? It's a specific example of a bigger question:

Should your primary focus as a teacher be making students more knowledgeable and academically skilled or should it also include making better people through moral or character ed? Most educators, and the public at large, agree that some type of moral education should be part of the curriculum.

Character Education

suggests that moral values and positive character traits, such as honesty, tolerance, and fairness, should be explicitly taught, emphasized, and rewarded. Proponents believe that right and wrong do exist and that parents and schools have a responsibility to teach students to recognize the difference.

Moral Education

is more value free, emphasizing instead the development of students' moral reasoning. Uses moral dilemmas and classroom discussions to teach problem solving and to bring about changes in the way learners think about moral issues.

Critics of character ed argue that it __________ rather than educates.


Critics of moral ed. assert that it has a ________________ view of morals with no right or wrong answers.


service learning

attempts to promote students' moral development by combining service to the community with content-learning objectives

Intelligent Design

is a theory suggesting that certain features of the universe and of living things are so complex that their existence is best explained by an intelligent cause, rather than an undirected process such as natural selection

Opponents argue that intelligent design is little more than _____________, a religious view suggesting that the universe was created by God as described in the Bible, framed in terms designed to make it appear scientific.


productive learning environment

it's a classroom that is safe and orderly and focused on learning -students feel physically and emotionally safe, and the daily routines, learning activities, and standards for appropriate behavior are all designed to promote learning and development.

Classroom Mangement

all the actions teachers take to create an environment that supports academic and social-emotional learning

For those of us who teach classroom management contributes to learning and development in multiple ways:

-Students are more motivated to learn and they learn more in well-mangaged classrooms. -They learn more when the environment is safe, secure, and inviting-we emphasize respect and responsibility because they promote our students' personal, social, and moral development.-we avoid criticizing students because criticism detracts from learning.

Successful classroom management begins with

goals-they guide our actions and provide structure to our classroom

The best way I can maintain an orderly classroom is to quickly stop misbehavior in my students whenever it occurs.

False, prevention not intervention, is the key to effective classroom management.

Jacob Kounin found that the key to an orderly classroom is the teacher's ability to

prevent management problems from occurring in the first place, rather than handling misbehavior once it occurs.

In designing an effective classroom management system, we have 4 primary goals:

-creating a positive classroom climate-creating a community of learners -developing learner responsibility -maximizing time and opportunity for learning

positive classroom climate

is an environment in which learners feel physically and emotionally safe, personally connected to both their teacher and their peer, and worthy of love and respect.

learning community

a place where you and your students all work together to help everyone learn

Allocated Time

the amount of time a teacher or school designates for a content area or topic

instructional time

the time left over for teaching after routine management and administrative tasks are completed

engaged time

the amount of time students are paying attention and involved in learning activities

academic learning time

the time students are successful while engaged in learning activities

the best way to increase the amount my students learn about a topic is to allocate more time to that topic.

false, the best way to increase student learning is to involve them in learning activities in which they are successful.

creating productive learning environments:

-communicating caring -teaching effectively -organizing your classroom -preventing problems through planning


refers to a teacher's investment in the protection and development of young people

showing that I care about students is important if I plan to teach elementary students, but it is less important if I plan to teach middle or high school students.

The first part of the statement is true, but the second isn't: a caring teacher is important for all students.

How do we communicate we care about students?

-learn students' names quickly, and call on students by their first name -greet students every day, and get to know them as individuals -use "we" or "our" instead of "you" and "your" in reference to class activities and assignments -use personal nonverbal communication such as eye contact and smiling -spend time with students before and after school and during lunch breaks -hold students to high standards

classroom organization:

-preparing materials in advance -starting classes and activities on time-making transitions quickly and smoothly -creating well-established routines


are the routines students follow in their daily learning activities, such as how they turn in papers, sharpen pencils and make transitions from one activity to another.

Rules, such as "Listen when a classmate is talking" are:

guidelines that provide standards for acceptable classroom behavior

Guidelines for creating and implementing effective rules include:

-state rules positively -emphasize rationales for rules -minimize the number of rules-monitor rules throughout the school year

classroom management in an urban environment

-caring and supportive teachers-clear standards for acceptable behavior -high structure-effective instruction

students benefit from parental involvement in several ways:

-more positive attitudes and behaviors -higher long-term achievement -greater willingness to do homework -better attendance and graduation rates -greater enrollment in postsecondary ed.

it is important that I involve my students' parents in their children's ed.


involve parents

-send a letter to parents within the first week of school that expresses positive expectations for students and solicits parents' help -maintain communication by frequently sending home packets of students' work, description of new units, and other info about academic work-emphasize students' accomplishments through newsletters, e-mails, or individual notes

________ parents is one of the most effective ways to involve parents.


an intervention

is a teacher action designed to increase desired behaviors or to eliminate student misbehavior and inattention

when intervening you have three goals:

1. Stop the misbehavior quickly and simply 2. maintain the flow of your lesson 3. help students learn from the experience

helping students understand.

-demonstrate withitness and overlapping -be consistent and follow through -keep verbal and nonverbal behaviors congruent -apply logical consequences


is a teacher's awareness of what's going on in all parts of the classroom at all times and communicating this awareness to students-"having eyes in the back of your head


the ability to attend to two issues simultaneously

logical consequences

are outcomes that are conceptually related to misbehavior, they help learners make sense of an intervention by creating a link between their actions and the consequences that follows


are verbal or nonverbal communications that teachers use to stop a behavior, such as telling a student to stop whispering

What do you do when a student says, "I am not going, you can't make me.

First, remain calm and avoid a power struggle Second, if possible, give the rest of the class an assignment and then tell the student calmly but assertively to step outside the classroom so you can talk.

an effective response to fighting involves 3 steps:

1-stop the incident 2-protect the victim 3-get help

if some of my students are involved in a fight, I am required by law to intervene

true, and failure could result in being sued for negligence

culturally responsive classroom management

combines cultural knowledge with teachers awareness of possible personal biases

culturally responsive classroom management has 5 elements:

-becoming personally aware of possible cultural biases -learn about students' cultural heritage -learn about students' neighborhoods and home environments -create caring learning environments -develop culturally responsive classroom management strategies

extrinsic motivation

motivation to engage in an activity to receive some incentive

intrinsic motivation

motivation to be involved in an activity for its own sake

motivated students:

-study and learn more and participate more in classroom learning activities -have more positive attitudes toward school and work harder -persist on difficult tasks and cause fewer management problems

Lessons that capture students interest and draw them into learning activities:

-use lesson introductions to attract and maintain students' attention throughout lessons -personalize content by focusing on real-world applications and linking topics to students' lives -promote high levels of student involvement in learning activities.

processes involved in effective teaching

-planning for instruction: selecting topics, specify objectives, prepare learning activities, prepare assessments -implementing instruction: conduct learning activities that help students reach learning objectives, employ essential teaching skills -assessing student learning: informally assess learning during instruction and formally after instruction


knowledge of facts, definitions, and other forms of memorized info, such as knowing the definition of equivalent fractions


understanding info, such as the ability to state a problem in one's own words or identify an example of a concept


using what one knows to solve an original problem


the ability to break information into component parts and provide evidence to support conclusions


combining info to create an original process or product such as constructing a unique process for finding a solution to a problem


making judgements about validity or quality of work based on a set of criteria, such as determining which of 2 approaches to solving a problem is more efficient

instructional alignment

the match between learning objectives, learning activities, and assessments


statements that describe what students should know or be able to do at the end of a prescribed period of study

personal teaching efficacy

describes teachers' beliefs in their abilities to help students learn, regardless of students' home lives, the condition of the school.