Orientation to Neurofeedback


modifies electrical activity of the CNS including EEG, event related potentials, slow cortical potentials and other electrical activity either of subcortical or cortical origin. this is an operant conditioning paradigm. This method is used to treat clinical conditions as well as enhance performance.


is a process that enables an individual to learn how to change physiological activity for the purposes of improving health and performance. Precise instruments measure physiological activity such as brainwaves, heart function, breathing, muscle activity, and skin temperature. These instruments rapidly and accurately 'feed back' information to the user. The presentation of this information—often in conjunction with changes in thinking, emotions, and behavior—supports desired physiological changes. Over time, these changes can endure without continued use of an instrument.

Who did a seminal study on cats, pilots, SMR, and seizure reduction?


Who did a seminal study on closed head injuries, coma patients, and "Whispers from the Brain"?


Who did a seminal study on ADHD, controlled studies in the 1970s, and studies on QEEG?


Who did a seminal study on "alpha-theta" protocol, substance abuse, and visualization?


Who did a seminal study on alpha brain wave experiments and consciousness?


Who did a seminal study on slow cortical potentials, brain computer interface (BCI), and thought translation devices (TTD)?


Who did a seminal study on alpha training and discovered hand warming to thwart migraines?

Elmer Green

Who did a seminal study on open focus technique, increasing alpha waves through awareness and engagement with the environment?

Les Fehmi

Who did a seminal study on multi-channel, multi-variate, and whole-head feedback using live Z-scores?


Who is the scientist who discovered the electrical nature of the brain by placing unipolar electrodes on the cerebral cortex of dogs/apes?

Richard Caton

Who discovered alpha wave activity in the brain?

Hans Berger

Who discovered EEG by reading potential changes from exposed rabbit's cortex?

Adolf Beck

Who performed the first human EEG studies in 1924?

Hans Berger

Who studied the sense of smell and electrical activity of the brain and abnormalities of waves in EEG?

Edgar Adrian

Who began experiments on brain wave frequencies by playing tones for patients and asking them if they were in alpha?

Joe Kamiya

What was the birth of clinical EEG rooted in?

study of seizures

Who first demonstrated epileptiform discharges?

Fisher and Lowenback in 1934