- CC- Pope in Rome
Although prayers in Mass were always said for Pope, what really counted for ordinary people?
Their own religious experience, which was central to lives of most people living in fifteenth century
Lives were lived and regulated according to what?
Church's major ceremonies
What was the focus of religious experience?
The parish church (over 8,000)
What did the church provide?
The focus of popular entertainment
What were its festivals closely linked to and what did they provide?
- agricultural year- much-needed enjoyment
What did its guilds and confraternities offer?
- charity- good fellowship- the chance for ordinary people to contribute to good of their local community
Church made it easier for social and political elites to maintain what?
Social control through its encouragement of good behaviour, obedience and stress on values of community
What did church provide?
Employment opportunities and, for a few like Cardinal Wolsey, opportunity to advance themselves socially through the attainment of his office in Church and State
The political role of Church was significant, both in terms of?
- international relations- domestic matters
Who held the highest position in the church?
Pope in Rome (who not only wielded considerable spiritual power but was also head of a substantial state in northern Italy)
It is typical of both Henry VII's carefulness and Pope's influence that he sought, through who, what?
- through Thomas Morton- a dispensation to marry Elizabeth of York
At this time, what did successive popes do?
Little to interfere directly with the running of Church in England
Describe the relationship between Church and State
Erastian (king was firmly in control, popes general eager to grant favours demanded by king)
The papacy had no objection to what?
Way in which Henry used wealth of Church to reward those churchmen to whom he had given high political office
Through which two provinces was the Church in England administered?
- Canterbury- York
These were each under jurisdiction of whom?
- an archbishop- seventeen dioceses
Each diocese was under control of who?
Sone of these dioceses, such as, enjoyed what?
- Winchester- Durham- considerable wealth
It was common in late fifteenth century for what?
Senior churchmen to enjoy positions of significant influence and power within the kingdom
It was common for senior clergy to what?
Participate at a high level in the political process
During much of the medieval period it was normal for what?
The most senior figures within Church to be drawn from senior ranks of aristocracy
Margaret Beaufort's great uncle had been cardinal and Bishop of Wincester
Who were the two churchmen who exercised most power under Henry VII?
- John Morton- Richard Fox
Some offices of State, especially that of the chancellor (who?), were what?
- (highest adviser to king)- monopolised by clergymen
The most senior clergymen were, on the whole, what?
Highly competent and conscientious professionals, often with legal training, who performed their duties to both Church and State effectively
The abbots were heads of what?
Wealthiest religious houses
The abbots shared membership of which house with who?
- HoL- bishops
They also had to possess a range of which skills to keep what running effectively?
- management- administrative- their complex organisations
What did they have to demonstrate?
The spirituality necessary to maintain the reputation of their houses
Not all heads of house did what?
Lived up to all of these demands, and criticisms of the monastic life were increasing
Religious community, belief and serviceWhat was central to religious experience?
This period was, according to who, emphatically the age of what?
- Eamon Duffy- the parish church and of those who worshipped there
The church provided what?
The outward structures of community life
Describe a late-medieval community
- religious- believed prayers made together, as part of collective unit of parish, were more powerful than those from individual alone
Church provided framework for what?
Controlling how an individual thought. reasoned and behaved
Its function was what?
- spread and uphold Christian teaching- offered various ways by which an individual could acquit grace in order to reach heaven and minimise time a should would spend in purgatory
What was necessary to reach heaven?
Observe as many of the seven sacraments as possible
What were the seven scraments?
- baptism- confirmation- marriage- anointing of the sick- penance- holy orders- eucharist
Welcomed newly born infant into community
Marked the transition from childhood to adulthood
In which community could witness tow individuals pledging themselves to each other
4. Anointing of the sick
Prepared the dying for their passage into next world
During which individual sought God's forgiveness for the sins which s/he had committed
6. Holy Orders
Process by which priest himself became empowered to deliver the sacraments (rituals) to others
Church members received Christ's body and blood in form of bread and wine to be nourished physically and spiritually and brought closer to God
Central religious experience of Catholic Church came with what?
Mass, during which priest would perform sacrament of Holy Communion (Eucharist)
What was the climax of this ceremony?
Point where priest consecrated bread and wine (declared it to be sacred)
What did Catholics believe at this point of consecration?
Bread and wine were transformed figuratively and literally into body and blood of Christ, known as transubstantiation
What was the difference between the priest and lay members during the Eucharist?
- priest consumed both bread and wine- lay members of congregation took bread only
The Mass was important for two reasons
- was a sacrifice performed by priest on behalf of community- was a sacred ritual in which whole community participated
Where was the importance of the consecrated bread emphasised?
At feast of Corpus Christi, which was one of the most important festivals of fifteenth-century church
The Church's social roleCommunal aspects of late-medieval religion were emphasised by what?
Investment which many lay people made into their parish churches
In addition to funding lavish rebuilding of many churches, it was largely lay people who also what?
Paid for objects which accompanied services
They dying would often what?
Leave money to parish churches, which had a triple purpose
What was the triple purpose?
- to enhance beauty of worship- to ensure remembrance of benefactor- to reduce time benefactor would spend in purgatory
Benefactors would also leave money for what?
Foundation of chantris
Usually chantries were financed from what?
Property bequeathed in someone's will for that purpose
According to Eamon Duffy
'the central function of a chantry priest was intercession for should of his patron'
Benefactors saw there donations as what?
A way of benefiting religious experience of themselves and their community (this is important for understanding why dissolutions of chantries by VIII caused so much distress)
Another significant expression of communal religious influences was what?
Confraternity (religious guild or lay brotherhood)
What were these?
Groups of men (sometimes women) who gathered together usually in association with parish church, to provide collectively for funeral costs of members
What did they also do?
- pay chaplains for masses for their members- help maintain church fabric- make charitable donations- socialise
General comments on guilds
- hugely popular- varied greatly in size and wealth
Wealthier guilds could be sources of what?
Local patronage and power
What did some of them do?
- ran schools and almshouses- maintained bridges, highways and seawalls- (as in Louth in Lincolnshire) paid for expensive projects such as building of spire at parish church
How did many of parishes in south and south Midlands raise funds?
Through church-ale festivals, which involved much drinking and a range of entertainments
What was another way in which individual could gain relief from purgatory?
Going on pilgrimage (visiting tomb of a saint, such as Thomas Becket at Canterbury, or a shrine build where there had been a siting of Virgin Mary, such as Walsingam in Norfolk)
Evidence to suggest what?
England's primary pilgrimage site, tomb of Thomas Becket, was losing its popularity
Some late medieval writers, such as who, were critical of what?
- Thomas a Kempis- pilgrimage as a practice
Vast number of pilgrimage sites made access what?
Practice of pilgrimage, in Duffy's description, was what?
When did a simpler form of pilgrimage take place?
Rogation Sunday, when whole community would 'beat the bounds' of the parish (walking around parish boundaries to pray for its protection), carrying banners and parish cross to eat of evil spirits and reinforce parish property
What did this event emphasise?
Importance of parish as key focus of local community in lives of ordinary people at time
Although religion emphasised as a social activity...
Importance of individual religious experience should not be underestimated
When did individual religious experience become more important?
As 15th C progressed
Individual religious experience was emphasised in what?
Writing of mystics, who believed in personal communication of individual with God
What is most obvious example of this approach in practice?
That of Lady Margaret Beaufort, whose piety was reflected in here widespread donations, especially to Cambridge uni
Religious ordersMonastic ordersHas been estimated around what % of adult males by c1500 were monks?
Most of these lived where?
In 900 religious communities which were found all over country
What was the oldest and most common religious order?
The Benedictines, named in honour of their founder St Benedict, who first devised the monastic rule
Some of larger Benedictine houses, like Durham, also operated as what?
Cathedral churches of their diocese, so fulfilling an important role in community
Other religious orders included what?
The Cistercians and Carthusians
Their foundation in late 11th C was prompted by what?
Lack of zeal shown by Benedictines
Their monasteries were frequently situated where?
In more remote rural areas - examples include the Yorkshire houses of Fountains and Mount Grace
Though monastic recruits came from wide range of social backgrounds, what is evident?
A large proportion of monks in the larger houses were drawn from wealthier parts of society
What is also evident?
Many monasteries recruited predominantly from their own localities
FriarsOrders of friars, (who worked among and were largely supported by what) arose when?
- lay people- charitable donations- 13th C
How many main orders of friars?
The Dominicans (or black friars), a preaching order
The Franciscans (grey friars)
Orders of friars see to have been recruited from where?
Lower down social scale than larger monasteries
By late 15th C, as Christopher Harper-Bill has argued,...
Great days of friars were over, though various orders of friars continued to receive substantial bequests in wills of faithful
NunneriesNunneries enjoyed much less what?
Prestige, given they were mostly populated by women who were deemed unsuitable for marriage
A notable exception
The Bridgettine foundation at Syon near Isleworth in Middlesex
Most nunneries were relatively what?
Poor (though Syon was an exception)
Quality of many novices was what? Why?
- inadequate- as they entered convents as a last resort
The Lollards, heresy and anticlericalismA small minority was critical of what?
Beliefs and practices of Church
Lollardy, for example, (founded by who) emerged in England when?
- John Wycliffe- second half of 14th C (was still to be found during time of VII)
What did Lollards place stress on?
Understanding of Bible, therefore favoured its translation into English
What were they skeptical about?
Transubstantiation and principles of the Eucharist (considered CC to be corrupt)
They also denied what?
Idea of the special status of the priesthood
Lollards views were considered what but still what?
- heresy- persisted in parts of southern England, particularly in south Buckinghamshire and around Newbury in Berkshire
Though mvt seems to have been quite widespread at end of 14th, beginning of 15th Cs, its popularity what?
Declined after failed Lollard uprising of 1414
Lollards became what, the movement lost what and became what?
- fewer in number- intellectual coherence- geographically restricted
Other forms of heresy seem to have been what?
Burning of heretics had been introduced into English law when?
1401, though relatively few had suffered this terrible fate
Criticism of Church did exist, and it has often be assumed what?
Anticlericalism was widespread in late-medieval England
This view has been challenged by historians, such as Christopher Haigh, who have argued what?
Specific outbursts of anticlericalism were rare, often politically motivated and the continued healthy numbers of candidates for priesthood showed priests retained support for most members of laity
Humanism, arts and learningHumanism and humanistsEarliest humanist scholars of significance in England were who?
- William Grocyn (1449-1510)- Thomas Linacre (1460-1524)
Each of them had experienced what?
Humanist approaches to the classics in Florence in late 1480s
Even more influential as an educator was who?
John Colet (1467-1519)
He saw humanist scholarly approaches as a means of what?
Reforming Church from within
Who was his most important ally in this process?
Renowned Dutch scholar Desiderius Erasmus (paid his first visit to England 1499)
Erasmus epitomised what?
Spirit of the new learning
His friendship with Thomas More would what?
Give a huge boost to humanist ideas in early years of reign of VIII
At time of VII's reign, humanism and Renaissance had what?
Made little impression on England
English intellectual life continued to be what?
Dominated by traditional medieval scholastic philosophy, which humanists considered to be too formal and old-fashioned
Developments in education'Song schools' and 'reading schools' provided what?
Elementary education for the very young
Much of 'secondary education' took place where?
Grammas schools (some had been in existence for centuries, was an increase in new foundations during this period
How many new grammar schools were founded between 1460 and 1509?
While there was ample provision for wealthy, for majority...
Access to education depended on where they happened to live
What was central to grammar school curriculum?
1480s saw beginnings of what?
A humanistic approach, particularly at Magdalen College School in Oxford (though most schools probably continued to teach subject in traditional way)
Teaching of English remained what?
By-product of teaching of Latin
Uni education rested with what?
Ancient unis of Oxford and Cambridge
Oxford had experienced what?
Substantial expansion with foundation of new colleges in first half of 15th C, but his had ground to a halt
Cambridge had several new colleges during this period, benefiting from what?
Generosity of Lady Margaret Beaufort who was responsible for foundation of Christ's College and St John's College
DramaWhat was most important popular art form of the time?
What were plays sometimes presented in association with?
Church-ale festivals, e.g. at Bishop's Stortford in Hertfordshire 1490
Troupes of players, sometimes sponsored by members of who, toured where?
What were the most famous dramas?
Mystery plays performed at feasts of Corpus Christi by guilds of towns and cities such as York, Lincoln, Wakefield and Coventry
The performances were important festive occasions in churches, corporations and guilds combined in what which set out what?
Public celebrationsStraightforward moral and religious messages for moral improvement of their audiences
MusicMusic was enjoyed at various levels in 15th C from what?
Local bagpipe and wind groups which entertained crowns on saints' days (sometimes accompanying bawdy drinking songs) to great choral pieces sung in country's cathedrals
What did this music undergo?
Beginnings of a 'renaissance' as single-line chants gave way to polyphonic choral music
What is polyphonic choral music?
Different parts of choir sang independent melodic lines, which would be heard in cathedrals and other major churches
What is the most important sourcing source for such music?
What is the Eton Choirbook and when was it compiled?
1505Collection of 93 separate musical compositions
Who were the two most important composers represented in Choirbook and what did they each have?
Thomas Browne - employed in household of Earl of OxfordRobert Fayrfax - benefited regularly from patronage of Lady Margaret Beaufort as well as that of KingClose links with political establishment of VII's reign
Which instruments did the music performed at court of homes of wealthy (sometimes special occasion or, more regularly, given from minstrels' gallery to accompany a meal) use?
Trumpets, shawms and sackbuts or, in softer music, stringed instruments, recorders and lutes
Browne and Fayrfax also composed what? What was this used for?
Secular songs used for entertainment
Carols were what?
(Not then exclusively associated with Christmas) also popular
ArchitectureWhat was there a massive amount of which occurred at this time?
Building and rebuilding of parish churches
What is the vast number of churches built in what style an indication of? What do these include?
Gothic perpendicularScale of investment which took placeSuch important places of worship as Saint Mary Redcliffe in Bristol and major wool churches of East Anglia (such as Lavenham and Long Melford)
What did VII approve in 1502?
This architectural style for Lady Chapel at Westminster Abbey
What did English culture still follow?
Gothic traditions of northwestern Europe, with an allegedly primitive visual style
What was the new industry of printing still only concerned with?
Traditional medieval culture
William Claxton, who established his printing press when, printed works such as?
1476Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and other traditional medieval works, including chivalric romances and adaptations of saints' lives
Tastes began to change and by end of VII's reign in 1509, what had reached England?
Humanist influences, particularly from Italy
Humanist scholars such as who became more fashionable?
Foreigners like ErasmusEnglishmen like Thomas More and John Colet
What did the works printed by Claxton become and with what?
UnfashionableEmergence of what Jack Lander called 'humanist contempt for chivalric literature'
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