Art-210 Exam 1: Dr. Halla

Besides architecture, the predominant art form of Mesopotamia was "__________

base-relief scuplture

Where Greek philosophy stressed harmony, order, and clarity of thought, Greek art and architecture reflected a similar respect for

balance

An important Greek innovation was "________________" in which the weight of the body rested on one leg with the body realigned accordingly, giving the illusion of a figure in arrested motion

contrapposta

Carved and painted kachina dolls out of cottonwood roots to represent gods and teach religion. Also decorated ceremonial underground kivas in Arizona with elaborate mural paintings of agricultural deities.

Hopi

Around 1904-08, the "__________" discovered African and South Pacific sculpture. Matisse, Derrain, and Vlaminck were key painters who enthusiastically collected African masks.

Fauves

The church of "_______' is widely recognized as a climax in Byzantine architectural style

Haiga Sophia

Some of the richest, purely ornamental drawings ever produced are contained in the illuminated gospel called the Book of "________" (760-820), collection of Trinity College, Dublin, produced by Irish monks

Kells

The chief forms of inspirational decoration in Gothic cathedrals were sculpture, stained glass, and "________

tapestries

The artist "___________" sculpted the first life size, freestanding nude sculpture since Classical antiquity.

Donatello

The Italian Renaissance artist Michelangelo felt the "__________" was most god-like

sculptor

In his later years, Michelangelo devoted himself to architecture, supervising the reconstruction of Rome's "_____________

St. Peter's Cathedral

_____________" was the Renaissance's major theorist who wrote treatises on painting, sculpture, and architecture

Alberti

While artists of the Italian Renaissance looked to classical antiquity for inspiration, northern Europeans looked to ___.

nature

The artist Albrecht Durer was the first to use "___________" as a major medium for art.

printmaking

The artist Albrecht Altdorfer is credited with the first pure "________" painting in Western art.

landscape

The name '____________' came from the Italian term 'di maniera' meaning a work of art done according to an acquired style rather than depicting nature.

mannerism

The most remarkable figure of the Renaissance working in Spain was the painter "______

El Greco

The Baroque era began in "________" around 1600 with Catholic popes financing magnificent cathedrals and grand works to display their faith's triumph after the Counter Reformation and to attract new worshipers by overwhelming them with theatrical 'must-see' architecture.

Rome

One of the most successful 'i tenebrosi' was the Italian artist "___________", the first woman painter to be widely known and appreciated.

Artemisia Gentileschi

______" was an more than the greatest sculptor of the Baroque period. He was also an architect, painter, playwright, composer, and theater designer.

Gianiorenzo Bernini

During the Baroque era, landscape views were little more than background for whatever was going on in the front of the picture. The "________" established landscape as deserving of its own artistic treatment.

Dutch

_________" was a supreme portraitist establishing a style, noble yet intimate and psychologically penetrating, that influenced three generations of portrait painters.

Anthony van Dyck

During the Baroque era, what Caravaggio did for painting, "________" did for architecture.

Francesco Borromini

Fans Hal's "most famous painting 'The Laughing ___________________,' portrays a sly figure with a smile on his lips, a twinkle in his eyes, and a mustache rakishly upturned.

Cavalier

Rembrandt van Rijn is considered the most accomplished "_______" ever. He handled the needle with such skill and speed, his etchings convey the spontaneity of a sketch.

etcher

Vermeer used a '"____________" obscura' to aid his accuracy in drawing. This was a dark box with a pinhole opening that could project an image of an object or scene to be traced on a sheet of paper.

camera

Since religious art was forbidden in Puritan churches and the taste for mythological subjects never caught on, ______________ art was limited almost exclusively to portraits.

English

England's main contribution to Baroque was St. Paul's Cathedral, designed by "_________

Sir Christopher Wren

________" differed from most Baroque artists in the simplicity and earthiness of his work. He never forgot his teacher's advice: 'Go to nature for everything.'

Velazquez

The pinnacle of Baroque architecture was the magnificent chateau of ________________, transformed from a modest hunting lodge to the largest palace in the world.

Versailles

Rococo was born in ________, where it coincided with the reign of Louis XV" and was primarily "a form of interior decoration.

Paris

In 1738, ____________________-mania swept Europe, as excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum offered the first glimpse of well-preserved ancient art.

archeology

The first half of nineteenth century art was a contest between two French painters: Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres and "_______

Eugene Delacroix

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres is chiefly remembered as one of the supreme "__________" of all time, able to capture physical appearance with photographic accuracy.

portraitists

The first American-born painter to win international acclaim was "___________.

Benjamin West

__________" was the first colonial to have a work exhibited abroad.

John Singleton Copley

Francisco de Goya's sixty-five etchings, 'The Disasters of '_________' from 1810-14 are frank exposes of atrocities committed by both the French and Spanish armies during the invasion of Spain.

War

Two English painters, born only a year apart, did more than anyone to establish landscape painting as a major genre. Yet stylistically J.M.W. Turner and ______________________ could not have been further apart.

John Constable

The Hudson River School was "____________" first native school of painting.

America's

__________" was the founder of the Hudson River School of Romantic landscape.

Thomas Cole

During the first half of the nineteenth century, as artistic wars between Neo-classism and Romanticism raged, "__________," a force that would dominate art for the second half of the century, slowly began to emerge.

realism

__________" was the 19th century's leading painter of animals.

Rosa Banheur

The father of the realist movement was "__________.

Gustav Courbet

_________" is widely regarded as the major American marine painter and watercolorist of all time.

Winslow Homer

___________" became the first important black painter and the most successful black American artist before Romare Bearden and Jacob Lawrence.

Henry O. tanner

Today, "_______" is considered America's finest 19th century painter and, in the opinion of many, the greatest painter America has produced.

Eakins

The Crystal Palace, housing the World's Fair in London, demonstrated the aesthetic possibilities of "________" framework.

cast-iron

The Arts and Crafts movement was influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, an earlier "______" art group formed in 1848 to restore art to the 'purity' of Italian art before Raphael.

English

The epitome of Art Nouveau's creeping vine motif was the glasswork of American "___________

Louis Comfort Tiffany

In 1826, the French chemist "_________" made the first surviving photographic image, a view of the courtyard outside his home.

Nicephore Niepce

What is the central question of art and its umbrella questions?

What does it mean to be human? Does God exist? Why am I here? What is love? What is beauty?

The Ancient Period

Prehistoric -AD 400

Medieval Period

AD 400 - AD 1300

Renaissance Period

AD 1300 - AD 1600

Baroque to Romanticism

AD 1600 - AD 1850

The Modern Era and Beyond

AD 1850- Present

The study of "______" is never just about art, but rather a doorway to get us to think about something broader.

art

Prehistoric Art

art and culture created before recorded history

3 Main Categories of Prehistoric Art

Cave paintings, Megalithic Structures, and Various Carvings and sculptures

Where and when was the Venus of Willendorf discovered?

Austrian Village of Willendorf in 1908

What is the significance of the Venus of Willendorf?

Was seen as the oldest sculpture of the human body and raised the big question of "what is beauty?

What is the Venus of Willendorf?

A limestone female figurine

What does it mean to be human?

Human beings are artistic, creative, and imaginative.

What is the Christian Tradition when it comes to the origins of human artistry?

Human beings are artistic, creative, and imaginative b/c they are made in the image of God. All humans have the innate capacity to make and appreciate artistic expressions. All human beings need meaningful aesthetic experiences in order to live more satisfying lives. Artistry is a gift we use to mirror our creator/creation.

The truth is that in discussing art, we are discussing something "____________" to mankind.

universal

Ancient Greeks are widely regarded as the ancestors of "____________," and for the past 2000 years, has carefully constructed itself in the image of the Greek and Roman worlds.

Western culture

Primary contributions of Greece in art

sculpture and architecture

There is a direct link between the "__________" that a culture produces and the "____________" and "________" that the culture embraces.

art/values/beliefs

Greek sculpture originated around the middle of the "___________

7th century BC

What was the significance of Greek sculpture?

For the first time in history, artists began to produce images of the human body that were more true to nature (the human figure was the principle motif of Greek art; a combination of naturalism and idealism).

Who did the Greeks base their sculptures off of?

Egyptians

Kouros means "________

young man

What is the Kouros?

A standing male (around 660 BC, men were depicted nude, frontal stance, left foot advanced, clenched fists, and the 'Archaic smile'.

What were the 3 primary functions of the Kouros?

1. A representation of a god 2. An object offered as a dedication to a god & 3. a funeral memorial

Why were Greek statues depicted in the nude?

Greeks placed huge value on body depiction

What is the Kore?

standing female clothed (shows no Egyptian antecedent) with frontal stance, usually holding skirt with one hand and an offering in the other. No proven connection to Kouros.

What is the Kritios boy and when was it discovered?

Torso discovered in 1865, head in 1880s. Kritios boy (480 BCE) an early example of contrapposto: a human figure with most weight distributed on one foot (a relaxed natural stance). Stood at 3 ft. 10 in. tall.

Who was Polykleitos of Argos?

One of the most celebrated and influential sculptors in antiquity. (450-420 BCE)

What work did Polykleitos publish and what was its content?

Canon which worked out, in mathematical terms, the ideal ratios and proportions of the beautiful body

What bronze statue did Polykleitos sculpt? and what was its signifigance?

Doryphyros meaning "spear-bearer" became the standard embodiment of ideal physical beauty.

How many references are known about Polykleitos?

12

What is the negative for both Polykleitos' text and bronze statue?

Only two words are known from Canon and the Doryphoros has been lost

Where is the most complete copy of the bronze statue located today?

Naples National Archaeological Museum in Naples, Italy

___________" was the character trait most often associated with artists.

competition

Which two characters were known for drawing precise and perfect lines that Pliny the Elder saw in the palace of Augustus and it was destroyed by fire in AD 4?

Apelles and Protogenes

Which two characters held a competition regarding the realism of a curtain and some grapes? In the story, one character is tricked into thinking the curtain is real, resulting in him having been duped by the realism of the painting.

Parrhasius and Zeuxis

What was the significance of losing when it came to the aspect of competition among artists?

Losers respond humbly which showed good sportsmanship and elevated status in society.

Who was the Greek philosopher, mathematician, mystic, and scientist who lived from 570-500 BC?

Pythagoras

What was the belief about the arts in regards to human behavior?

The arts have the ability to influence human behavior and it contributes to the either the health or decline of a culture.

Who were the big three Western Philosophers?

Socrates, Plato (428-347 BC), and Aristotle (384-322 BC)

What two things were "married" to produce 'the West as we know it today?'

Biblical tradition and Greco-Roman culture

Western culture is historically informed by what two primary traditions?

Classical and Judeo-Christian

Early Christian art represents both beginning of "__________" and the final stage of "____________

Christian art/Roman art

What was the #1 subject of Western art?

The human body

Why is there no Christian art discovered before AD 200?

1. Christians did not make works of art prior to AD 2002. Maybe they did make art, but none survived prior to AD 2003. Artwork was made prior to AD 200 but they cannot be positively identified as 'Christian art.'

What place is highly regarded as the birthplace of Christian art and contain the largest example of early Christian art available today?

The Catacombs

What are the two historical divisions regarding Early Christian art?

Pre-Constantine (before the Edict of Milan in 313) and Post-Constantine (from Edict of Milan to the early 6th century)

What were Early Christian Values

Biblical and theological knowledge (to help grow knowledge in faith) andFaithfulness and perseverance (during times of persecution)

What were the functions of early Christian art?

Instruction (to help grow knowledge in faith) and encouragement (during a time of persecution)

What were the primary subjects and themes of the OT in art?

Emphasis on safety and deliverance from immediate danger (ex. Noah and the ark; Daniel in the Lion's Den; three Hebrews in the fiery furnace)

What were the primary subjects of the NT in art?

Jesus' power over death (ex. Jesus' miracles, the raising of Lazarus; the raising of Jairus' daughter;the healing of the blind man, etc.)

What is the "Pompeii of the Desert" and what is it?

Dura-Europos- A Hellenistic Roman city on the banks of the Euphrates. Was sacked in AD 256 and rediscovered March 30, 1920

What important feature was found in Dura-Europos and when was it discovered?

Jewish Synagogue discovered in 1935 by Clark Hopkins

What was the Jewish Synagogue's significance?

Oldest preserved Jewish Synagogue (AD 244) and contains the earliest visual reference to God the Father in Judeo-Christian tradition.