___________ is a set of symbols that represent ideas, events, and objects. It's generative and rule-governed.
_______________ is the exchange of information. It can be verbal or nonverbal.
The primary reason researchers decided to try to teach chimpanzees American Sign Language rather than a spoken language was that
chimpanzees do not have the articulatory and physiological ability that spoken languages require.
The smallest units of meaning in a language are called
All the following words are likely to be used by a child in the one-word stage EXCEPT:
Studies of newborn babies have shown that
newborns prefer to hear the language they heard in utero
Studies of grammatical development have shown that
most children learning a language acquire the forms in essentially the same order
Children who are at the two-word stage in different language communities produce utterances that
have universal characteristics
When a speaker who knows a language well makes a grammatical error in conversation, this is
probably a performance error, unrelated to linguistic competence
__________ is the physical production of sounds that allows us to produce spoken language.
The type of study in which experimenters compare how long infants spend looking at flashing lights associated with different types of sounds is called the:
head turn-preference procedure
If an adult responds vocally to a 3-month-old's cooing, the infant will tend to
make more speech-like sounds in return
In a study of intentional communication, an experimenter shows a child an attractive toy and then puts it on a high shelf, out of the child's reach. This is an example of
a communicative temptation task
When a mother points at a dog and says "Look! A doggie!" to her seven-month-old, she is
establishing joint attention
During their first year of life, infants have typically done all of the following EXCEPT:
begun to produce multiword utterances
Which of the following best describes infants' learning of the sounds of their languages?
Infants come into the world being able to perceive most possible speech sounds, and gradually lose the ability to distinguish sounds that do not occur in their native language.
All of these are criteria for deciding whether an infant's behavior is intentionally communicative EXCEPT:
he takes his conversational turn at the appropriate moment
If an infant utters the sound "tata!" every time he sees the cat, this expression is considered
The features of baby talk that infants seem to prefer over all others is
During the first year of life, the infant
makes sounds that reflect the sound patterns of the language he or she hears
The International Phonetic Alphabet is associated with __________ forms.
__________ of articulation looks at how the air flows while the sound is being made.
The English consonants /t/. /n/, and /d/ are all:
Loudness, pitch, and stress are considered to be what kind of aspects of speech?
The transition between babble and speech
is a gradual progression: speech and babble often coexist for several months
The cries and fussing of a very small infant are considered
The child's phonetic inventory at a particular time is
a list of speech sounds and word patterns that occur in her word productions
A child who says "gug" for bug and "gig" for big but who properly pronounces /b/ in some contexts, is demonstrating
Consonant sounds are normally classified on the basis of
place and manner of articulation and voicing
________ of articulation looks at where the upper articulator is closest with the lower articulator.
The relationship between the color red on a traffic light and the meaning "stop" is
The phenomenon by which children are able to understand the meaning of a new word after only a few exposures to it and without explicit instruction is referred to as
Most English words are
For children acquiring language
both b and c:there is a noun bias, possibly because adult input includes so many nouns.nouns may be easier to acquire because their referents are more easily identifiable.
A word like 'thud' that is intended to resemble the actual sound of something is called a(n)
The first 50 words that an English-speaking child learns generally
include more nouns than verbs
Young bilingual children's vocabulary should be assessed: (all statements are true EXCEPT:)
using only monolingual norms as a reference pointCORRECT:in their two languagestaking into consideration the contexts in which different types of words are learnedby asking more than one reporter
Young children's expressive vocabularies typically are
smaller than their receptive vocabularies
A child calling all large animals "horse" is an example of _____________.
Which of the following is NOT a feature of child-directed speech?
speaking quicklyCORRECT:clear enunciationclear pausesexaggerated intonation
How many morphemes is the following phrase:I'm hungry, Mama.
Which of the following is an example of an irregular past tense verb?
Which of the following is NOT a rule for calculating Mean Length of Utterance?
Compound words (ex: cowboy) count as two morphemes
When a young child makes a plural like foots, it is evidence that she
is acquiring the rule-governed system of English morphology
Which of these communications might be classified as typical of the telegraphic stage?
the child points to the cookie jar and says "more cookie
Which of these sentences demonstrates a typical overregularization error?
He goed home
Children's earliest questions are usually
statements with rising intonation
Recent research using the preferential looking paradigm with very young children suggests that
language production lags behind comprehension
Researchers who have studied children's acquisition of English grammatical morphemes have found that
most children acquire the morphemes in roughly the same order
According to Brown's guidelines for calculating a child's MLU, compound words such as birthday initially
should be counted as a single morpheme
Which language area falls under the language component of "use"?
At Halloween, when a child rings her neighbor's doorbell and says "trick or treat!" this is considered
If a child says "goodbye" both when someone arrives and when someone leaves, this shows
Which of the following is the best example of communicative competence?
saying "trick or treat" only at Halloween
Preschoolers are unlikely to use a request such as "Gimme that crayon" with
a puppet that represents a high-status person
A preschooler is on the phone with his grandmother, telling her about his day. When she asks "Who did you play with today?" he answers "Those ones" but she has no idea what he's talking about. This preschooler is demonstrating
Pragmatic deficits are central characteristics of children with
autism spectrum disorders
Theory of mind refers to:
understanding the perspectives of other people
Changing the way you talk based on the people you are talking to (ex: friends versus boss) is known as ____________.
Who is considered an "uncooperative" conversational partner?
both siblings and peers