CSD312 Midterm Exam

___________ is a set of symbols that represent ideas, events, and objects. It's generative and rule-governed.

Language

_______________ is the exchange of information. It can be verbal or nonverbal.

Communication

The primary reason researchers decided to try to teach chimpanzees American Sign Language rather than a spoken language was that

chimpanzees do not have the articulatory and physiological ability that spoken languages require.

The smallest units of meaning in a language are called

morphemes

All the following words are likely to be used by a child in the one-word stage EXCEPT:

idea

Studies of newborn babies have shown that

newborns prefer to hear the language they heard in utero

Studies of grammatical development have shown that

most children learning a language acquire the forms in essentially the same order

Children who are at the two-word stage in different language communities produce utterances that

have universal characteristics

When a speaker who knows a language well makes a grammatical error in conversation, this is

probably a performance error, unrelated to linguistic competence

__________ is the physical production of sounds that allows us to produce spoken language.

Speech

The type of study in which experimenters compare how long infants spend looking at flashing lights associated with different types of sounds is called the:

head turn-preference procedure

If an adult responds vocally to a 3-month-old's cooing, the infant will tend to

make more speech-like sounds in return

In a study of intentional communication, an experimenter shows a child an attractive toy and then puts it on a high shelf, out of the child's reach. This is an example of

a communicative temptation task

When a mother points at a dog and says "Look! A doggie!" to her seven-month-old, she is

establishing joint attention

During their first year of life, infants have typically done all of the following EXCEPT:

begun to produce multiword utterances

Which of the following best describes infants' learning of the sounds of their languages?

Infants come into the world being able to perceive most possible speech sounds, and gradually lose the ability to distinguish sounds that do not occur in their native language.

All of these are criteria for deciding whether an infant's behavior is intentionally communicative EXCEPT:

he takes his conversational turn at the appropriate moment

If an infant utters the sound "tata!" every time he sees the cat, this expression is considered

a protoword

The features of baby talk that infants seem to prefer over all others is

positive affect

During the first year of life, the infant

makes sounds that reflect the sound patterns of the language he or she hears

The International Phonetic Alphabet is associated with __________ forms.

spoken

__________ of articulation looks at how the air flows while the sound is being made.

Manner

The English consonants /t/. /n/, and /d/ are all:

alveolar consonants

Loudness, pitch, and stress are considered to be what kind of aspects of speech?

suprasegmental

The transition between babble and speech

is a gradual progression: speech and babble often coexist for several months

The cries and fussing of a very small infant are considered

reflexive vocalizations

The child's phonetic inventory at a particular time is

a list of speech sounds and word patterns that occur in her word productions

A child who says "gug" for bug and "gig" for big but who properly pronounces /b/ in some contexts, is demonstrating

assimilation

Consonant sounds are normally classified on the basis of

place and manner of articulation and voicing

________ of articulation looks at where the upper articulator is closest with the lower articulator.

Place

The relationship between the color red on a traffic light and the meaning "stop" is

symbolic

The phenomenon by which children are able to understand the meaning of a new word after only a few exposures to it and without explicit instruction is referred to as

fast mapping

Most English words are

symbolic

For children acquiring language

both b and c:there is a noun bias, possibly because adult input includes so many nouns.nouns may be easier to acquire because their referents are more easily identifiable.

A word like 'thud' that is intended to resemble the actual sound of something is called a(n)

onomatopoeia

The first 50 words that an English-speaking child learns generally

include more nouns than verbs

Young bilingual children's vocabulary should be assessed: (all statements are true EXCEPT:)

using only monolingual norms as a reference pointCORRECT:in their two languagestaking into consideration the contexts in which different types of words are learnedby asking more than one reporter

Young children's expressive vocabularies typically are

smaller than their receptive vocabularies

A child calling all large animals "horse" is an example of _____________.

overgeneralization

Which of the following is NOT a feature of child-directed speech?

speaking quicklyCORRECT:clear enunciationclear pausesexaggerated intonation

How many morphemes is the following phrase:I'm hungry, Mama.

4 morphemes

Which of the following is an example of an irregular past tense verb?

ate

Which of the following is NOT a rule for calculating Mean Length of Utterance?

Compound words (ex: cowboy) count as two morphemes

When a young child makes a plural like foots, it is evidence that she

is acquiring the rule-governed system of English morphology

Which of these communications might be classified as typical of the telegraphic stage?

the child points to the cookie jar and says "more cookie

Which of these sentences demonstrates a typical overregularization error?

He goed home

Children's earliest questions are usually

statements with rising intonation

Recent research using the preferential looking paradigm with very young children suggests that

language production lags behind comprehension

Researchers who have studied children's acquisition of English grammatical morphemes have found that

most children acquire the morphemes in roughly the same order

According to Brown's guidelines for calculating a child's MLU, compound words such as birthday initially

should be counted as a single morpheme

Which language area falls under the language component of "use"?

communicative competence

At Halloween, when a child rings her neighbor's doorbell and says "trick or treat!" this is considered

a routine

If a child says "goodbye" both when someone arrives and when someone leaves, this shows

overextension

Which of the following is the best example of communicative competence?

saying "trick or treat" only at Halloween

Preschoolers are unlikely to use a request such as "Gimme that crayon" with

a puppet that represents a high-status person

A preschooler is on the phone with his grandmother, telling her about his day. When she asks "Who did you play with today?" he answers "Those ones" but she has no idea what he's talking about. This preschooler is demonstrating

egocentrism

Pragmatic deficits are central characteristics of children with

autism spectrum disorders

Theory of mind refers to:

understanding the perspectives of other people

Changing the way you talk based on the people you are talking to (ex: friends versus boss) is known as ____________.

register

Who is considered an "uncooperative" conversational partner?

both siblings and peers