HY 357 Midterm

Fredrick the Great

King of Prussia mid to late 1700's; Offers the best example of dynastic war.-Believed soldiers needed to have weakness beat out of them and train for 5 years.-Soldiers should fear generals more than enemies. -Didn't allow lower ranking soldiers to move up unless they were from nobility; resulting in a state that is controlled by the elite with only elites intrest in mind.

Dynastic War

Fought with the goal of leaving larger territory to descendants than originally started with. -wars are fought by the lowest of society for the benefit of the highest in society with the goal of expanding territories.

Levee en Masse

Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army in order to be seen as citizen.-Passed in 1793-created a strong sense of nationalism.-was prompted after France had concluded majority of the population is made up of the 3rd estate.- Many in France has begun to question legitimacy of brith alone as right to rule. -allowed for massive mobilization of French troops.

Congress of Vienna (1815)

-Led by Klemens von Metternich, European countries meet to disscuss restoring Europe after Napoleon. -Restored former boundaries and dynasties-Opposed nationalist movements-Keep the peace with Balance of Power; b/w France, Russia, and Austria -the goal was to create a Europe where no state can gain enough power to rule Europe.

Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)

-unification of Germany, after sparking three wars w/ Denmark, Austria, and France. B/w 1863-71 he is the greatest disturber of peace in Europe.

The Peoples Charter

Presented to house of commons in, 1838. Called for: 1) Universal adult male suffrage in G.B 2) The secret ballot 3) Abolition of Property requirements for members of Parliament 4) salaries for Parliament members 5) equal electoral districts -Wanted the government to work in the interests of lower and middle class people. -Prompted government fears of revolution in GB but they just wanted their demands heard and met.

Karl Marx

Publishes the Communist Manifesto in 1848, prior to the revolutions breaking out in G.B.-Argues that the "oppressed masses are the backbone of society", in order to advance their must be...a.) Violent revolution because controlling elite won't willingly give up power. b.)No private property- government should own land and lease it out accordingly.

Leopold II

Belgian king who ruthlessly exploited the natives on his African land for personal gain.-Employed Henry Morton Stanley to help explore Congo Basin.-Established the Congo free state -extraction of natural recourses prompts scramble for Africa-Causing increased international competition.


World politics". The policy of making Germany a major global power through an expanding navy and the acquisition of colonies, similar to Britain. the dream of William II.-Claimed it would raise the standard of living of German population... Begins to give rise of Nationalism... feelings of Us vs. Them.

Claude Etienne Minie

a French Army officer famous for inventing a bullet in 1849. The Minié bullet, had an expandable base when fired, proved lethally accurate over relatively long distances.-Groves on bullet allow it to spin and improves accuracy.

Hiram Maxim

An American inventor who created the machine gun. -Recoil operated... which meant all gunner had to do was start firing.-Equivalent to the rate of fire of an entire Battalion -becomes known ad the Vickers gun.

HMS Dreadnought

1906; Britain responded to Germany's growing navy by launching the most powerful warship in the world called

The Dreyfus Affair

PID; Begins in 1841, Someone in French Military is accused of selling details of French Artillery to Germany. -Captain Alfred Dreyfus is accused & and illustration of him being stripped of military titles is circulated around Alt-Right wing French New-papers, claiming that Dreyfus can't be a French solider because he is Jewish (therefore not French). -Causes split in society, Anti-Dreyfusards acknowledges that Dreyfus is probably innocent but argue that French military can't be seen as weak/ having made a mistake.

Alscae and Lorraine

Bismarks Generals encourage him to claim two provinces that were under French control, w/o them Germany would be left venerable in an attack. -Invasion of provinces angers France and they promise revenge.

Dual Alliance (1879)

Between Germany and Austria-Hungary. Manipulated by Bismarck to isolate France. A SECRET defensive military alliance which provided for mutual aid if either of the two were attacked by Russia.


This means "Three Emperors' League" in German. It referred to a loose agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia to work together against socialism, republicanism and liberalism. It began in 1872.

Reinsurance Treaty

1887; b/w Germany and Russia.-Claimed an attitude of neutrality toward each other... Must be resigned every 3 years.

Wilhem II

PID- No pictures or paintings of him ever depict his witherd arm because it went against the conservative belief of what a man should be, one of those things being physically fit. -Majority of the awards that he is shown wearing in the picture were awarded at birth. -He carries a curved field Marshall baton which signified his right to command, despite not earning the right. -Because of this, lower level officers held very little respect for him.

Entente Cordiale (1904)

Threatened by growing power of Germany... Britain and France agree to reduce their isolation and get rid of any past problems they still had with each other-Not really a formal alliance.-Now Germany is surrounded by opposition countries.-Eventually Russia joins and it becomes known as the Triple Entente.

Italian Irredenta

Meaning "unredeemed Italy". Italian speaking area that had been left under Austrian rule at the time of the unification of Italy.

Triple Alliance

Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.

The Union of Death/The Black Hand

Bosnian/Serbian terrorist organization led by Dragutin Dimitrijvic, responsible for the assassination of future prime minister of, Franz Ferdinand.

Josef Conrad von Hotezendorff

Chief of staff of Hungarian Army @ time of Serbian crisis, recommends mobilizing forces to punish Serbs for Balkan war and remind them they are weak.-uses assassination of Ferdinand to justify going to war with Serbia.

Alek Hoyos

Is sent to Germany in order to gain support for Austria in the ware against Serbia. -Germany Agrees n the condition that Austria-Hungary moves quickly, in order for it to be seen clearly as retaliation.

Estavan Tiza

Hungarian prime minister, refuses to agree on war w/ Serbs until July... which is a problem because they had promised Germany to act quickly.

Alfred Graf von Schlieffen

Created the Schlieffen plan; a mobilization plan that divided German army into 8 armies.- 8th army goal is to hold off Russians.-1-7th army will be deployed to French and Belgian front once the war breaks out.-Goal is defeat France in total of 6 weeks by invading France through neutral Belgium -Problem w/plan is that it assumes Russian mobilization will take 6 weeks, by 1916 it takes them only 4.

Edward Grey

British foreign secretary; issues ultimatum to France and Germany, if they don't evacuate neutral Belgium then they will have to go to war with Britain... France complies while Germany doesn't. -Worked fiercely to prevent outbreak of world war but once it is inevadlbe he makes sure G.B. plays a role.

Erich Ludendorff

A German general who assisted Paul von Hindenburg in achieving victories at the Battle of Tannenberg and the Battle of the Masurian Lakes. Throughout the rest of the war, Ludendorff continued to serve Hindenburg, first as chief of staff and later as quartermaster general.-victory @ Tannenberg led him to believe that he was a military genius.

John French

British commander of the BEF in France, Landed about 100,000 men in Mons, outside of Belgium... Faced about 2.5 mil Germans.

PID- German Reservists

Picture highlights their under-preparedness. The can be seen carrying cardboard briefcases that hold their uniforms. Majority of these reservists have been civilian all their lives. -Leaders in military don't like to use reserves because they believe it takes years to properly train a solider.

Joseph Joffre

a marshal and French general who served as Commander-in-Chief of French forces on the Western Front from the start of World War I until the end of 1916.-led the French @ Battle of the Marne in 1914. -Uses trains to mobilize troops quickly.

Battle of the Marne

A battle in which the French and British defeated Germany in France... Able to halt & reverse German advancement.- This meant that the Schlieffen Plan became impossible and Germany would have to fight on two fronts-battle showed how French allies will be a problem for Germany .

Jeune Ecole

The Jeune École ("Young School") was a strategic naval concept developed during the 19th century.-advocated the use of small, powerfully equipped units to combat a larger battleship fleet, and commerce raiders capable of ending the trade of the rival nation.-The idea was developed among French naval theorists: the French government had the second largest navy of the time, and the theorists desired to counteract the strength of the British Royal Navy which was the largest.**Used smaller vessels with powerful weapons, torpedoes and torpedo boats.

Alfred Thayer Mahan

Head of naval academy in 1890's.-Claimed all great empires throughout history have had control of the seas. -Developed naval theory; a country must focus attention in denying control of the sea to enemies warships, do not worry about invading commerce.

Battle of Jutland (1916)

Battle of Jutland: First and last major naval conflict b/w Britain and Germany.German admiral Reinhard Scheer tried to lure part of the British fleet out from its base so that an attack could be made by the German forces. German forces were numerically superior. British could decipher German radio signals and sent out more ships than anticipated. After several hours of exchanging artillery fire, the Germans decided to sail back to port. Although the Germans could claim victory (they lost 11 ships to Britain's 14), the major result of the encounter was that the Germans had not destroyed the British fleet, and Britain was left in control of the surface waters. -German felt will never come out with this much force again -PID:German Sinking of British H.M.S. Indefacable highlighted weakness in the Royal Navy.

Arthus Conan Doyle

Wrote a story in 1908, in which the Royal Navy is made a fool of by a fictional naval states, that looks a lot like Germany. The story contributes heavily to public fears.

Prize Rules

Formally codified in the 1856 treaty of Paris, essentially says ships must be inspected @ blockade. If the ship is found the be carrying contraband, cargo is "prize" for the British & ship is returned to owning country. -1909 declaration of London; states what can and can't be seized, Germany uses this to justify ignoring prize rules.


=-British response to German submarine campaign. -Civilian ships outfitted with light artillery and armor, decoys set W/ goal of slipping in and out of shipping lanes to engage German submarines.-contributing factor to declaration unrestricted submarine warfare.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare (1915)

the use of submarines to sink without warning any ship (including neutral ships and unarmed passenger liners) found in an British waters.-dramatic shift form the prize rules.

RMS Lusitania

May 7th, 19515, sunk by German submarines and torpedos... 1,260 people were killed, 120 Americans. -Prompted president Wilson to write an angry letter to Kaiser Wilhelm II, telling him to back down or else relations would be broken. -U.S. backlash forces Germany to operate by prize rules

SMS Deutschland

German built cargo submarine, able to avoid British blockade but can't carry enough supplies to matter. -Highlights German desperation to find something that is affective against British blockade.

Winston Churchill

British Prime Minister, develops many plans to get Navy into headlines and receiving funding. -1st; Naval assault on the Dardanelles, Sackville Carden is given the task despite it being pretty much impossible due to strong current and Ottomans occupying high ground. 2nd plan was to bring in new allies into the war.-also leads to the development of armored cars.

Sir Douglas Haig

Commanded British forces at the Somme in 1916, developed plan to attack Somme by pommelling Germans with Artillery barrage w/ goal of killing or dazing Germans. -the British army lost about 19,000 soldiers on the first day of the battle.

Lewis Gun

Australian made, "Light macheine-gun, today it would be known as an assault rifle. -The goal of the gun is to spray enemy with bullets and clear a path for other forces to come in and do more harm. -given to the infantry division.

Wilfied Stokes

Designed the Stokes morter, fires artillery shells at a very high arc.-places a lot of firepower in the hands of low level soldiers.

Fritz Haber

German chemist who suggested use of gas cylinders... which were buried in no mans land and would then release Mustard gas- which debilities and blinds soldiers.

Creeping Barrage

Just before an attack, artillery fire is directed @the first trench and then as the infantry division advances, artillery fire shifts to the 2nd trench. -goal is to give opponent less time time to react by the time the infantry division arrives. @ the trench. -problem is artillery timing fails to take into account infantry's ability to advance.

E.D Swinton

says that a tank is what they need to get across the western frontcomes up with the idea for a tract (of the tank)makes suggestion and then goes back to being an officergets into a huge copyright battle with H.G. WellsFrench push the idea of a tank

Admiralty Landships Committee

funded by Churchill with the goal of developing the best way to use tanks on the battle field.-The goal of tanks is to protect infantry as they move across no-mans land.-problem with tanks; no communications with outside world, inaffective against land mines, mud of the western front, not resistant to all bullets.

J.F.C. Fuller

British officer assigned to the heavy section (tank division)-author of plan 1919, in which he envisions a war of tanks, severely overestimating the ability of tanks.-he is part of a new group of elite that is forming, holds a disdain for old, landowning calvary ariostocry as well as the working class.


battle that sparked the Russian great retreat. -on the 2nd of May, 1915 Germans advance on Russian 3rd army, causing them to withdraw- triggering the fall of the entire Russian front. -Between may and september Russian army lost 1.4 million men.

Pale of Settlement

1915; Russian imperialist way of segregating Russias jewish population. -Dictated them living in a specific area, being caught outside of the pale was grounds for punishment. -majority of the land that was considered to be the pale is where the Russian army retreated through, destroying everything in their path... thousands of jewish people are displaced.

Russo-Japanese War

(1904-1905) War between Russia and Japan over imperial possessions. Japan emerges victorious.- one of the first crisis that Tsar Nicholas II fails to deal with adequately... prompts feelings of insecurity about tsar ability to lead.

Twenty-One Demands (1915)

Sent to China by Takai Koato- foreign minister of Japan, demands were divided into five seperate groups, all with goal of consolidating Japanese power in China-demanded economic and policing rights in Manchuria and Mongolia -wanted to send military advises to china.


Indian dependence movement, funded by Germany in hopes of them rising up against British occupiers.

Paul Lettow Vorbeck

German staff officer in command of east African troops. His goal is to siphon British and French troops away from the western front. Although he is not succesful because the British do not use their own men to fight in the battle. -troops are known as Askaris

Boots Chemists

British drug store that published an add, discouraging british consumers from buying German products. -highlights the use of the war as way to self promote the use of domestic products. -there is also a subtle link between military participation in the ads "soldiers user our products so you should too".

David Lloyd George

Founded the ministry of Munitions, which has the power to compel factories to accept contracts for the production of artillery shells. -wants to use tax money to fund the production of ammunition.