animal health & disease control exam 1

what does the immune system protect

infectious agents

the study of the immune system is called?

immunology

true or false. if the body is in homeostasis, it is likely suffering from disease

FALSE

true or false. Antibiotics are used to prevent disease

FALSE

what are the two broad classifications of microscopic agents?

infectious agents and commensal organisms

which of the following best describes a commensal organism?

coexist with a host

what is the name of the commensal bacteria found in our gut (large intestine)

escherichia coli

how does the commensal bacteria in our gut prevent colonization of other microbes?

colicin production

which of the following is NOT a type of pathogen

cancer

what is the name of the cell type that makes up our external barriers and lines out internal organs that aids in protecting against pathogens

blank

what historical event led to increased interested and study of the immune system

world war 2

true or false. mucus helps protect against pathogen invasion party because it is made up of molecules that can degrade pathogens

TRUE

true or false. Complementary has the ability to flag and destroy them independently

TRUE

tumor

swelling

rubor

redness

edema

fluid retention

dolor

pain

how do immune cells find the location of a pathogen infection?

blank

vasodilation is the terms for dilation of vessels, and is caused by cytokines during an immune response

blank

which of the following is an effector cell of the innate immune response

NK cells

true or false. the innate immune response is primarily determined via genetics

TRUE

true or false. bacteria have an adaptive immune response

FALSE

basophils

granulocytes

lymphocytes

NK cells/B cells/T cells

monocytes

macrophages/ dendritic cells

in an adult individual (>5 los of age), hematopoietic stem cells are produced primarily in the bone marrow

...

all immune cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells

...

which of the following is a lymphoid tissue?

liver

true or false. lymphocytes grow and develop in the secondary lymphoid tissues

FALSE

NK cells

innate response

complement

innate response

b cells

adaptive response

antibodies

adaptive response

true or false. during the adaptive response, all circulating b and T cells will activate

FALSE

the specific part of a pathogen that's n antibody binds to is known as a

antigen

what cell type produces antibodies

blank

true or false. immature B cells secrete antibodies into the blood.

FALSE

true or false. one B cell can make many different types of antibodies

FALSE

which of he following is not an antibody isotype

IgN

which antibody isotope is secreted first during an adaptive immune response

IgM

the regions on a pathogen to which an antibody binds is called

antigen

igG

only antibody that can cross the placenta

dimeric igA

secreted in milk and mucosal surfaces

monomeric IgA

found in internal tissues of the body

IgM

secreted as a pentamer

IgE

primarily involved in protecting against parasites

true or false. monoclonal antibodies are an antibody population that recognize multiple and different epitopes

FALSE

the specific region of an antigen to which the antibody binds is called an

epitope

a hybridoma is composed of what two cells types?

B cell and NK cell

B cell maturation order

1) immature B cells circulate throughout the body2) immature B cells encounter a pathogen that binds to antibody3) immature B cells undergo clonal expansion4) llama cells secrete antibodies to tag pathogen

monoclonal antibodies

recognizes a single epitope

polyclonal antibodies

recognizes multiple epitopes

a hybrodoma is composed of a B cell and myeloma

...

what is a monoclonal antibody

blank

what is the primary function of T cells in the adaptive immune response?

destruction of tagged pathogens

true or false. T cells antigens/epitopes include carbohydrates and lipids

FALSE

what does the acronym for 'MHC' stand for ?

major histocompatibility complex

what are the two requirements for T cell activation

1)binding piece of pathogen2) binding major histocompatibility complex

put the components of the T cells receptor in the correct order, from outside the cell, to inside the cell

-outside cell-2 antigen binding sites-2 v regions-2 c regions-2 transmembrane domains-2 cytoplasmic tails-inside cell

what is another name for the antigen binding site on T cell and B cell receptors?

complementary determining region

CD4

MHC II/ Stimulates cytokine release

CD8

MCH I/ DESTROY infected cells