What is proper anatomical position?
Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward with thumbs pointing away from body
What are the two sets of body cavities?
The dorsal body cavity (back= posterior) and the ventral body cavity (front= anterior)
What is the dorsal cavity?
Protects the nervous system and includes the cranial and vertebral cavities
What is the ventral cavity?
Houses the internal organs and includes the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
What is the thoracic cavity?
Consists of two pleural cavities, mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity
What is the abdominopelvic cavity?
Divided into the abdominal cavity (stomach, intestines, spleen and liver) and pelvic cavity (urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum)
What is a burn?
tissue damage and cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation, friction, or chemicals
What is the immediate threat of burns?
Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance (leading to renal shutdown and circulatory shock)
How are burns evaluated?
The Rule of Nines
The Rule of Nines
method used to calculate the amount of fluid lost as the result of a burn; divides the body into 11 areas, each accounting for 9% of the total body area
What is a first degree burn?
Superficial burn involving epidermis damage only (Caused by sunburn and minor flash injuries -No edema, no blisters)
What is a second degree burn?
epidermal and partial upper dermal damage,the area is painful and blisters are present
What is a third degree burn?
Entire thickness of skin damaged. Gray-white, cherry red, or black. No initial edema or pain (nerve endings destroyed). Skin grafting usually necessary.
When are burns considered critical?
Over 25% of the body has second-degree burnsover 10% of the body has third-degree burnsthere are third-degree burns of the face, hands, or feet
What is calcitonin?
a hormone secreted by the thyroid that has the effect of lowering blood calcium (in response to high levels), and promotes bone formation by osteoblasts
What is parathyroid hormone?
a hormone secreted by the parathyroid that has the effect of raising blood calcium (in response to low levels), and stimulates osteoclasts to break down bone
What is the relationship between osteoblasts and blood calcium levels?
Osteoblasts build bone, to do so they use calcium from the blood, which reduces the blood calcium levels
What is the relationship between osteoclasts and blood calcium levels?
Osteoclasts break down bone, in doing so they free up calcium which increases the blood calcium levels
What is connective tissue?
The most diverse, abundant, and widely distributed of the tissues. Designed to support, protect and bind organs
What are the four main classifications of connective tissue?
Connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood
What are the three main elements of connective tissue?
ground substance, fibers, and cells
What are the three types of fibers in connective tissues?
Collagen (most abundant, provides high tensile strength), elastic (thin, stretchy), and reticular (network allowing for more "give")
What is epithelial tissue?
a sheet of cells covering body surfaces and cavities which is responsible for absorption and protection
What kind of epithelial tissue is used for protection?
thick, multi-layered epithelium
What kind of epithelial tissue is used for absorption?
a single layer of epithelial tissue
What are important characteristics of epithelial tissue?
Polarity, highly mitotic, and is avascular but innervated (without direct blood supply)
What are the first names of classification for epithelia? What do they indicate?
simple and stratified; indicate number of cells
What are the second names of classification for epithelia? What do they indicate?
Squamous (flattened laterally), columnar (tall, closely packed), and cuboidal (thick, cube shaped); indicate shape of cells
What is negative feedback?
most used feedback mechanism in body in which the response reduces or shuts off original stimulus (reduces change)
What is positive feedback?
response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus, causing variable to continue in same direction as stimulus (amplifies change)
What is a receptor?
also called a sensor, montiors environment, detects change, and responds to stimuli
What is a control center?
determines set point at which variable is maintained, receives input from receptor, determines appropriate response
What is an effector?
receives output from control center, provides means to respond, response either reduces or enhances stimulus
What is a stimulus?
A change in the environment of an organism
What are the two classifications of joints?
structural and functional
How to classify joints by structure?
3 types based on what binds the joints and whether a cavity is present; fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial
How to classify joints by function?
3 types based on the movement allowed by joint; synarthroses (immovable), amphiarthroses (slightly movable), and diarthroses (freely movable)
What are the layers of the dermis?
papillary layer (superficial layer that includes the dermal papillae and friction ridges) and the reticular layer (deep layer making up 80% of dermal thickness, made up of the network of blood vessels called the cutaneous plexus and the extracellular matrix)
What cells make up the epidermis?
keratinocytes (major cells than make skin waterproof), melanocytes (produce melanin and protect from UV), dendritic cells (star-shaped macrophages, key activators of immune system), and tactile cells (sensory receptors that sense touch)
What are the five layers of the epidermis (skin)?
1. stratum basale (base/basal layer, mitotic, also called stratum germinativum)2. stratum spinosum (prickly layer, several layers thick)3. stratum granulosum (granular layer, multi-layered but thin because flattened)4. stratum lucidum (clear layer, flat dead cells)5. stratum corneum (horny layer, 20-30 rows of flat, anucleated keratinized cells, 3/4 of epidermal thickness)
What is the chemical level of organization?
atoms, molecules, and organelles
What is the cellular level of organization?
What is the tissue level of organization?
groups of similar cells
What is the organ level of organization?
contains two or more types of tissues
What is the organ system level of organization?
organs that work closely together
What is the organismal level of organization?
All organ systems combined to make the whole organism
types of cartilage
hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
Most common type of cartilage, provides support, flexibility and resilience; it is found on the ends of long bones, ribs, and nose
similar to hyaline cartilage except with elastic fibers (external ear, epiglottis)
Thick collagen fibers: has great tensile strengthMenisci of knee; vertebral discs
slipping movements only
movement in one plane
movement in two planes
movement in or around all three planes