history midterm

Italian Renaissance

A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. From roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century followed by this movement spreading into the Northern Europe during 1400-1600

the Great Terror of france

when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial by the guillotine


Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.

Robespierre and the Reign of Terror

A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution.

Purpose of the guillotine

to painlessly behead people seen as less cruel and more efficiant

Kamakura Shogunate

The first of Japan's decentralized military governments. (1185-1333).


(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshiped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.

Mongol Empire

Largest land empire in the history of the world, spanning from Eastern Europe across Asia.

What did the Mongols do?

tried to reduce the role of Confucian scholars and preserve their own culture. The Mongols set up and efficient transportation system

Louis XIV

This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France.

Congress of Vienna

(1814-1815 CE) Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.

Napoleonic Wars

A series of wars fought between France (led by Napoleon Bonaparte) and alliances involving England and Prussia and Russia and Austria at different times (1799-1812).

Martin Luther

95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.

john calvin

1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.

circles of hell

Nine circles, and progressivly hadworse punishments

Marie Antoinette

Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)

Cortes and Pizarro

Spanish conquerors of great Indian civilizations


Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule

Guiseppe Garibaldi

Military leader whose Red Shirt army liberated most of southern Italy, before conquering the northern section. He was instrumental in the unification of Italy.

Guiseppe Mazzini

nationalist leader who founded Young Italy

Camillio di Cavour

prime minister of kingdom of Sardinia, primarily responsible for unifying Italy; "The Head" of Italian nationalism

san martin interbide

led revolutions for independence from Spanish rule for countries in the southern part of South America.


A political system of exchanging land for loyalty and protection


A type of labor commonly used in feudal systems in which the laborers work the land in return for protection but they are bound to the land and are not allowed to leave or to peruse their a new occupation.

mid evil hiearchy

kings, lords, knobles, peasants

Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

the intellectual community that was created by the Scientific Revolution had influence on the Enlightenment, people were interested in secular thought and learning, start to doubt what has been set out before them as the prevailing thought. This mean religion, Just like scientists, they began to question whether what was in front of them was really right