PS 470

The phrase "checks and balances" means the same thing as "separation of powers.


In Federalist 48, Madison suggests that, in a republic, the branch of government whose power presents the greatest threat is:

the legislative

Where in the Constitution is Congress provided with the authority to make exceptions to and regulations of the Supreme Court's appellate jurisdiction?

Article III, sec 2, par 2

Served as John Adams' Secretary of State.

John Marshall

In Marbury v. Madison, the Court held that Jefferson and Madison were acting within the lawful limits of their official discretion by refusing to deliver a commission to Mr. Marbury.


In Marbury v. Madison, the Court held that Congress had unconstitutionally:

expanded the Court's original jurisdiction.

The Court held that Congress had authority to withdraw the Court's appellate jurisdiction over federal habeus corpus claims.

Ex Parte McCardle

The Court found that a challenge to a Tennessee statute was justiciable. The (somewhat old) challenged statute had fixed in place the apportionment of representation to the State Assembly without regard to changing population patterns in the state.

Baker v. Carr

The Court rejected a "vocational nexus" theory of standing.

Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife

In which case did the Court decline to decide which of two competing state governments in Rhode Island was legitimate, holding that the constitutional guaranty of a republican form of government to the states was nonjusticiable.

Luther v. Borden

This case employed the "capable of repetition yet evading review" exception to mootness doctrine.

Roe v. Wade

Which case clarified that federal appellate jurisdiction covers state civil cases, emphasizing that the Article III language creating the Supreme Court's appellate jurisdiction speaks of "cases -- not courts.

Martin v. Hunter's Lessee

Determine which constitutional provisions would best help you answer the various questions.How many states were required to vote for this constitution in order to ratify it?Article VIIHow are Senators selected?Article I, section 3 and the 17th Amendment.Where does the Constitution explicitly state that federal law trumps inconsistent state law?Article VI, par. 2.Does the Constitution establish any procedures or rules regarding salary raises for the President?Article II, sec. 1, par 7How and when and by whom may Constitutional Conventions be called?Article V.How long is the term of office of a federal judge?Article III, sec. 1.If someone charged with a crime in one state flees to another, can the other state refuse extradition?

Article VIIArticle I, section 3 and the 17th Amendment.Article VI, par. 2.Article II, sec. 1, par 7Article V.Article III, sec. 1.Article IV, sec. 2.

In the Federalist # 10, Madison defined what term as follows: "a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community"?


In Federalist 10, Madison used the phrase "extending the sphere" as part of his discussion of:

the wisdom of including larger populations and more interest groups into a political society.

Which case held that conflicts between state statutes and state constitutions should be resolved by state courts rather than federal courts?

Calder v. Bull (1798)

Which of the following declared that "[Congressional] acts which assume to create, define, or punish crimes other than those enumerated in the Constitution, are altogether void, and of no force"?

Kentucky Resolution

Which of the following declared that, in the case of "deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of [federal] power," the states "have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil"?

Virginia Resolutions

The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were adopted in response to:

The Alien and Sedition Acts

In which case did the Court hold that Plaintiffs could have standing to sue for environmental or aesthetic harms, even if similar harms were suffered by much of the population, stating that "the fact that particular environmental interests are shared by the many rather than the few does not make them less deserving of legal protection through the judicial process.

United States v. S.C.R.A.P. (1973)

In Goldwater v. Carter, the Court held that:

Whether the President must consult with Congress prior to terminating a treaty was a politcal question that the Court would not resolve.

In Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow, the Court held that:

Newdow lacked prudential standing to challenge Pledge of Allegiance recitations on behalf of his daughter because California had granted her mother legal custody.

In Rucho v. Common Cause, the majority held that allegations of partisan gerrymandering are non-justiciable.