Chapter 14- The Brain and Cranial Nerves

Rostral means "________" and Caudal means "__________

Towards the forheadTowards the spinal cord

In the spinal cord and brainstem, Rostral means "________" and Caudual means "__________


The thick folds of the brain are called "___________" and are separated by shallow grooves called "_________


The very deep meadian groove that separates the right and left hemisphere is called "___________

Longitudinal Fissure

Hemispheres are connected by a thick bundle of nerve fibers called the "_____________

Corpus Callosum

The cerebellum and cerebrum are separated by the "__________

Transverse cerebral fissure

The brainsteam includes all of the brain except the cerebrum and cerebellum. This includes "_____________

Diencephalonmid brainponsmedulla oblongata

The nervous system develps from "_____________


The neural tube develops into three dialations called the "______________________

Primary Vesicles

The primary vesicles are "_____________


Five "______________" develope from the three primary vesicles.

Secondary Vesicles

The secondary vesicles are "______________

Telencephalon, diencephalonMesencephalonMetencephalon, myelencephalon

____________" are the three membranes that lie between the brain and bone


_________________" is pressed closely agaisnt the cranial bone and consists of two layers, "________________

Dura MaterPeriosteal LayerMeningeal Layer

In some places, the two layers of dura mater are separated by "_______________", spaces that collect blood that has circulated through the brain

Dural Sinuses

Two main dural sinuses are "____________

Superior Sagittal SinusTransverse Sinus

In three locations, the meningeal layer of the dura folds inward to separate marjor parts of the brain from each other. Why?

Limit brain movements during trauma

What are the three meningeal seperations called?

Falx Cerebri- Cerebral HemispheresTentorium Cerebelli- Separating the cerebellum from the cerebrumFalx Cerebelli - right and left of the cerebellum

The brain contains four chambers called ventricles. What are their names and their path?

(2) Lateral Ventricles in each cerebral hemiphereInterventricular foamen connects each lateral ventricle to the third ventricleCerebral Aqueduct passes down the core off the midbrain to the fourth ventricleFourth Ventricle narrows forming the central canal

On the floor or wall of each ventricle is a spongy mass of capillaries called "___________" covered with "______________________". What do they secrete?

Choroid plexusEpendymal cellsCerebrospinal Fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid serves three purposes:

1. buoyancy2. protection3. chemical stability

___________________" strictly regulates what can get from the bloodstream inot the tissue fluid of the brain

Brain Barrier System

_______________" is created by tight junctions between endothelial cells and perivascular feet of astrocytes

Blood-Brain Barrier

___________________" protects choroid plexuses and is formed by tight junctions between ependymal cells

Blood-CSF Barrier

What part of the embryonic brain is the Medulla Oblongata derived from?


The anterior surface of the Medulla Oblongata features a pair of ridges called the "_____________" which are separated by the "_________________________

PyramidsAnterior Median Fissure

Literal to each pyramid on the Medulla Oblongata is a prominent bulge called the "____________


About 90% of motor fibers cross over at the "_____________________

Pyramidal Decussation

The loose netword of nuclei extending throughout the entire brainstem is called "______________________

Reticular Formation

The reticular formation in the medulla includes four centers:

Cardiac CenterVasomotor Center2 Respiratory Centers

What part of the embryonic brain is the Pons derived from?


Posteriorly, the Pons consists mainly of two pairs of thick talks called "____________________" that connect the cerebellum to the pons and midbrain

Cerebellar Peduncles

What connects the hindbrain to the forebrain?

the Midbrain

Posterior to the cerebral aqueduct is the "_____________


The Tectum in the midbrain exhibits four bulges called "_______________

Corpora Quadrigemina:Superior Colliculi: Visual AttentionInferior Colliculi: Sound response

Anterior to the cerebral aqueduct, the midbrain consists mainly of the "___________________", which anchors the cerebrum to the brainstem.

Cerebral Peduncles

Each Cerebral Peduncle has three components:

1. Tegmentum: Red Nucleus connects to coordinate fine motor control2. Substantia Nigra: Motor center that relays inhibitory signals 3. Cerebral Crus: bundle of nerve fibers that connect cerebrum to the pons

The Reticular Formation plays a part controling "________________

Somatic Motor ControlCardivascular ControlPain ModulationSleep and ConsciousnessHabituation

The cerebellar hemisphere exhibits slnder, transverse, parallel folds called "__________


White matter in the cerebellum exhibit a branching, fernline pattern called "_________________

Arbor Vitae

Cerebellum is connected to the brainstem by 3 pairs of stalks called "______________

Cerebellar Peduncles

The cerebellar peduncles include:

Inferior peduncles are connected to themedulla oblongata and receive spinal inputmiddle peduncles are connected to the ponsand receive input from the rest of the brainsuperior peduncles are connected to themidbrain and are a pathway for cerebellaroutput

The cerebellum is a center for monitoring :

Muscle contractionsmotor coordinationsensory input language outputplanning and scheduling

The Diencephalonis derived from what part of the emryonic brain? What three structures does it give rise to?

the ForebrainThalamusHypothalamusEpithalamus

The thalamus is responsible for:

signals for taste, smell, hearing, vision,equilibrium, touch, pain, pressure, heat,and cold

The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk called :


The Hypothalamus is responsible for:

major control center of the endocrine andautonomic nervous systemsplays an essential role in the homeostaticregulation of nearly all organs of the body- hormone secretion (Ch. 17)- autonomic effects (Ch. 15)- thermoregulation (Ch. 26)- food and water intake (Ch. 26)- sleep and circadian rhythms- memory, emotional behavior and sexualresponse

The epithalamus is a very small mass of tissue composed of the :

Pineal Gland (Secrete melatonin)Habenula (Relay from the libic system to the midbrain)

The Cerebrum is derived from what embryonic brain?


The sulci of the brain devide each hemisphre into five anatomically and functionally distinct lobes:


The Frontal Lobe is responsible for:

conscious, abstract thoughtexplicit or declarative memorycognitive and emotional processes (mood,motivation, foresight, planning, decision-making, emotional control)

The parietal lobe is responsible for:

taste, somatic sensation (touch, heat, andpain) and visual processingmultisensory integration, spatial perceptionand awareness of body orientationlanguage processing and numerical awareness

The Occipital lobe is responsible for:

Visual processing

The temporal lobe is resposible for:

Hearing and smellemotion and learninglanguage comprehension and memory of thegrammar and vocabulary of the languageswe speakmemory consolidation and storage of verbal,visual, and auditory memories

The insula is responsible for:

taste and painvisceral sensationconsciousnessemotional responses and empathycardiovascular homeostasis