Rostral means "________" and Caudal means "__________
Towards the forheadTowards the spinal cord
In the spinal cord and brainstem, Rostral means "________" and Caudual means "__________
The thick folds of the brain are called "___________" and are separated by shallow grooves called "_________
The very deep meadian groove that separates the right and left hemisphere is called "___________
Hemispheres are connected by a thick bundle of nerve fibers called the "_____________
The cerebellum and cerebrum are separated by the "__________
Transverse cerebral fissure
The brainsteam includes all of the brain except the cerebrum and cerebellum. This includes "_____________
Diencephalonmid brainponsmedulla oblongata
The nervous system develps from "_____________
The neural tube develops into three dialations called the "______________________
The primary vesicles are "_____________
Five "______________" develope from the three primary vesicles.
The secondary vesicles are "______________
Telencephalon, diencephalonMesencephalonMetencephalon, myelencephalon
____________" are the three membranes that lie between the brain and bone
_________________" is pressed closely agaisnt the cranial bone and consists of two layers, "________________
Dura MaterPeriosteal LayerMeningeal Layer
In some places, the two layers of dura mater are separated by "_______________", spaces that collect blood that has circulated through the brain
Two main dural sinuses are "____________
Superior Sagittal SinusTransverse Sinus
In three locations, the meningeal layer of the dura folds inward to separate marjor parts of the brain from each other. Why?
Limit brain movements during trauma
What are the three meningeal seperations called?
Falx Cerebri- Cerebral HemispheresTentorium Cerebelli- Separating the cerebellum from the cerebrumFalx Cerebelli - right and left of the cerebellum
The brain contains four chambers called ventricles. What are their names and their path?
(2) Lateral Ventricles in each cerebral hemiphereInterventricular foamen connects each lateral ventricle to the third ventricleCerebral Aqueduct passes down the core off the midbrain to the fourth ventricleFourth Ventricle narrows forming the central canal
On the floor or wall of each ventricle is a spongy mass of capillaries called "___________" covered with "______________________". What do they secrete?
Choroid plexusEpendymal cellsCerebrospinal Fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid serves three purposes:
1. buoyancy2. protection3. chemical stability
___________________" strictly regulates what can get from the bloodstream inot the tissue fluid of the brain
Brain Barrier System
_______________" is created by tight junctions between endothelial cells and perivascular feet of astrocytes
___________________" protects choroid plexuses and is formed by tight junctions between ependymal cells
What part of the embryonic brain is the Medulla Oblongata derived from?
The anterior surface of the Medulla Oblongata features a pair of ridges called the "_____________" which are separated by the "_________________________
PyramidsAnterior Median Fissure
Literal to each pyramid on the Medulla Oblongata is a prominent bulge called the "____________
About 90% of motor fibers cross over at the "_____________________
The loose netword of nuclei extending throughout the entire brainstem is called "______________________
The reticular formation in the medulla includes four centers:
Cardiac CenterVasomotor Center2 Respiratory Centers
What part of the embryonic brain is the Pons derived from?
Posteriorly, the Pons consists mainly of two pairs of thick talks called "____________________" that connect the cerebellum to the pons and midbrain
What connects the hindbrain to the forebrain?
Posterior to the cerebral aqueduct is the "_____________
The Tectum in the midbrain exhibits four bulges called "_______________
Corpora Quadrigemina:Superior Colliculi: Visual AttentionInferior Colliculi: Sound response
Anterior to the cerebral aqueduct, the midbrain consists mainly of the "___________________", which anchors the cerebrum to the brainstem.
Each Cerebral Peduncle has three components:
1. Tegmentum: Red Nucleus connects to coordinate fine motor control2. Substantia Nigra: Motor center that relays inhibitory signals 3. Cerebral Crus: bundle of nerve fibers that connect cerebrum to the pons
The Reticular Formation plays a part controling "________________
Somatic Motor ControlCardivascular ControlPain ModulationSleep and ConsciousnessHabituation
The cerebellar hemisphere exhibits slnder, transverse, parallel folds called "__________
White matter in the cerebellum exhibit a branching, fernline pattern called "_________________
Cerebellum is connected to the brainstem by 3 pairs of stalks called "______________
The cerebellar peduncles include:
Inferior peduncles are connected to themedulla oblongata and receive spinal inputmiddle peduncles are connected to the ponsand receive input from the rest of the brainsuperior peduncles are connected to themidbrain and are a pathway for cerebellaroutput
The cerebellum is a center for monitoring :
Muscle contractionsmotor coordinationsensory input language outputplanning and scheduling
The Diencephalonis derived from what part of the emryonic brain? What three structures does it give rise to?
The thalamus is responsible for:
signals for taste, smell, hearing, vision,equilibrium, touch, pain, pressure, heat,and cold
The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk called :
The Hypothalamus is responsible for:
major control center of the endocrine andautonomic nervous systemsplays an essential role in the homeostaticregulation of nearly all organs of the body- hormone secretion (Ch. 17)- autonomic effects (Ch. 15)- thermoregulation (Ch. 26)- food and water intake (Ch. 26)- sleep and circadian rhythms- memory, emotional behavior and sexualresponse
The epithalamus is a very small mass of tissue composed of the :
Pineal Gland (Secrete melatonin)Habenula (Relay from the libic system to the midbrain)
The Cerebrum is derived from what embryonic brain?
The sulci of the brain devide each hemisphre into five anatomically and functionally distinct lobes:
The Frontal Lobe is responsible for:
conscious, abstract thoughtexplicit or declarative memorycognitive and emotional processes (mood,motivation, foresight, planning, decision-making, emotional control)
The parietal lobe is responsible for:
taste, somatic sensation (touch, heat, andpain) and visual processingmultisensory integration, spatial perceptionand awareness of body orientationlanguage processing and numerical awareness
The Occipital lobe is responsible for:
The temporal lobe is resposible for:
Hearing and smellemotion and learninglanguage comprehension and memory of thegrammar and vocabulary of the languageswe speakmemory consolidation and storage of verbal,visual, and auditory memories
The insula is responsible for:
taste and painvisceral sensationconsciousnessemotional responses and empathycardiovascular homeostasis