DNA -> RNA -> Protein
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
Theory of Evolution
Theory that suggests that random variation and natural selection gave rise to diversity Amongst organisms that share common ancestry.
Trasmission Electron Microscope; used to study parts inside of a cell; only dead cells can be observed
Scanning Electron Microscope; Scans a beam of electrons across the surface of the specimen.
Why do populations of prokaryotic cells evolve fast?
1.) Rapid growth rates 2.) Large numbers 3.) ability to exchange genetic material by a process akin to sex
Process that requires oxygen
Process that does not require oxygen
Why do plants need bacteria?
1.) They cannot capture N2 from the atmosphere by themselves2.) Bacteria help in photosynthesis
What are the two domains of prokaryotes
Bacteria and Archaea
organelle in eukaryotic cells that is specialized for the secretion of proteins
organelle in eukaryotic cell that is designed to modify and package molecules make from the ER
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
small vesicles inside of the cell that use hydrogen peroxide to inactivate toxic molecules.
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.
The cytosol is important in the cell because
its where most of the important chemical reactions of the cell take place.
Most proteins are made by what and where?
Proteins are made by ribosomes in the cytosol of the cell
Network of protein filaments that helps the cell maintain its shape
Which 3 filaments are found in the cytoskeleton?
1.) actin filaments 2.) microtubules 3.) intermediate filaments
thinnest of the filaments that helps with muscle contractions
thickest filaments in the cytosol that are hollow tubes. Help with cell duplication because they help pull daughter chromosomes away from one another.
Size between actin filaments and microtubules. Serve to strengthen the cell.
Proteins that use the filaments of the cytoskeleton to carry organelles and proteins throughout the cell. Powered by ATP
Programmed cell death
What does the M stand for in MR. GREy +
What do the two R's stand for in MR. GREy +
1.) Respond 2.) Reproduce
What does the G stand for in MR. GREy +
What does the E stand for in MR. GREy +
What does the + stand for in MR. GREy +
That all living things must contain DNA and a PLASMA MEMBRANE
All living things have this, indicates that chemical reactions are taking place.
Chemical reactions that combine simple substances to larger molecules
Chemical reactions that break down larger molecules into simpler substances.
Prokaryotes __________ a nucleus Eukaryotes __________ a nucleus
Prokaryotes DO NOT HAVE a nucleusEukaryotes HAVE a nucleus
What are the 4 kingdoms in the Domain Eukarya?
1.) Plants 2.) Animals 3.) Fungi 4.) Protists
Any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal or fungus is a...
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
an organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide.
Life originated ____ Billion years ago
What is the length of an average cell
a few micrometers
8 Criteria to study Model Organisms
1.) Cost 2.) Size 3.) Space 4.) Reproductive Rate 5.) Ease of Manipulation 6.) Generation times 7.) Shared Knowledge 8.) Transparency
What are the three tenants of the cell theory?
1.) All living things are made up of cells 2.) Cells are the basic unit of structure for all organisms 3.) All cells come from a preexisting cell.