Bio 2 Chapter 1

Central Dogma

DNA -> RNA -> Protein

Cell Theory

idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells

Theory of Evolution

Theory that suggests that random variation and natural selection gave rise to diversity Amongst organisms that share common ancestry.


Trasmission Electron Microscope; used to study parts inside of a cell; only dead cells can be observed


Scanning Electron Microscope; Scans a beam of electrons across the surface of the specimen.

Why do populations of prokaryotic cells evolve fast?

1.) Rapid growth rates 2.) Large numbers 3.) ability to exchange genetic material by a process akin to sex


Process that requires oxygen


Process that does not require oxygen

Why do plants need bacteria?

1.) They cannot capture N2 from the atmosphere by themselves2.) Bacteria help in photosynthesis

What are the two domains of prokaryotes

Bacteria and Archaea

Endoplasmic Reticulum

organelle in eukaryotic cells that is specialized for the secretion of proteins

Golgi apparatus

organelle in eukaryotic cell that is designed to modify and package molecules make from the ER


cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell


small vesicles inside of the cell that use hydrogen peroxide to inactivate toxic molecules.


process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane


a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.

The cytosol is important in the cell because

its where most of the important chemical reactions of the cell take place.

Most proteins are made by what and where?

Proteins are made by ribosomes in the cytosol of the cell


Network of protein filaments that helps the cell maintain its shape

Which 3 filaments are found in the cytoskeleton?

1.) actin filaments 2.) microtubules 3.) intermediate filaments

Actin filaments

thinnest of the filaments that helps with muscle contractions


thickest filaments in the cytosol that are hollow tubes. Help with cell duplication because they help pull daughter chromosomes away from one another.

Intermediate filaments

Size between actin filaments and microtubules. Serve to strengthen the cell.

Motor proteins

Proteins that use the filaments of the cytoskeleton to carry organelles and proteins throughout the cell. Powered by ATP


Programmed cell death

What does the M stand for in MR. GREy +


What do the two R's stand for in MR. GREy +

1.) Respond 2.) Reproduce

What does the G stand for in MR. GREy +


What does the E stand for in MR. GREy +


What does the + stand for in MR. GREy +

That all living things must contain DNA and a PLASMA MEMBRANE


All living things have this, indicates that chemical reactions are taking place.

Anabolic reactions

Chemical reactions that combine simple substances to larger molecules

Catabolic reactions

Chemical reactions that break down larger molecules into simpler substances.

Prokaryotes __________ a nucleus Eukaryotes __________ a nucleus

Prokaryotes DO NOT HAVE a nucleusEukaryotes HAVE a nucleus

What are the 4 kingdoms in the Domain Eukarya?

1.) Plants 2.) Animals 3.) Fungi 4.) Protists

Any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal or fungus is a...



organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer


an organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide.

Life originated ____ Billion years ago


What is the length of an average cell

a few micrometers

8 Criteria to study Model Organisms

1.) Cost 2.) Size 3.) Space 4.) Reproductive Rate 5.) Ease of Manipulation 6.) Generation times 7.) Shared Knowledge 8.) Transparency

What are the three tenants of the cell theory?

1.) All living things are made up of cells 2.) Cells are the basic unit of structure for all organisms 3.) All cells come from a preexisting cell.