PH Bio - Chapter 2 - Cell Properties & Function

in vitro

outside the body

Plasma Membrane: Structure

lipid-based and containing proteins

Plasma Membrane: Function

selective barrier that controls transport in and out of cells

Nucleus: Structure

double-layer membrane containg DNA and specialized proteins

Nucleus: Function

stores genetic material

Endoplasmic Reticulum: Structure

a network of fluid-filled tubules and flattened sacs

Endoplasmic Reticulum: Function

synthesizes proteins and transports materials through the cell

Golgi Complex: Structure

sets of flattened, curved sacs, that are stacked in layers

Golgi Complex: Function

modifies, packages, and distributes newly synthesized proteins

Lysosomes: Structure

membrane sacs containing hydrolytic enzymes

Lysosomes: Function

digests and eliminates cellular waste

Peroxisomes: Structure

membrane sacs containing oxidative enzymes

Peroxisomes: Function

detoxifies the cell

Mitochondria: Structure

rod or oval-shaped bodies having a double outer membrane, a folded inner membrane (cristae), and an interia (matrix)

Mitochondria: Function

major site for ATP (energy) production

Transport Vesicles: Structure

membrane-enclosed packages

Transport Vesicles: Function

move molecules such as proteins from the rough ER to the golgi complex

Vaults: Structure

octagonal barrels

Vaults: Function

may transport either messenger RNA or ribosomal units from the nucleus to the cytoplasm

3 Major parts the cell

plasma (Cell) membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm

The nucleus acts as the control center of the cell by directing ________________ of certain ___________ that determine the ______________ of cell

synthesis, proteins, specificity

3 Types of RNA

messenger, ribosomal, transfer RNA

2 Primary Structures on the inside of the cell

nucleus, cytoplasm

The genetic code for a specific protein is ______________________ into _________________________________ RNA, which then exits the _________________________ and delivers the code to the ________________________RNA. The __________________________ RNA reads and ______________________________ the code into ________________________________________________ and then _________________ RNA delivers sequences within cytoplasm to designated sites of __________________ production within the cell.

transcribed, messenger, nucleus, ribosomal, ribosomal translates amino acid sequence, transfer, protein

The ________________________ is the portion of the cell interior that is not occupied by the nucleus


The cytoplasm is comprise of a complex gel-like mass called


Almost all cells contain 6 primary types of organelles:

endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria, vaults

Cytosol is a semi-liquid mass laced with an intricate network of proteins called; which also gives it its shape, provide internal organization and regulates movement


Protein synthesizing factory

endoplasmic reticulum

Most of these ribosomal proteins mature in the _________________________ before going to their final destination

golgi apparatus

Other proteins in the ER are sent for export to the exterior of the cell as _____________________________________ (hormones or enzymes)

secretory products

Its primary function is to transport materials through the cell

smooth ER

cells that specialize in lipid metabolism are abundant in; example

smooth ER, liver cells

This consists of sets of flattened, cured, membrane-enclosed sacs that are stacked in layers

golgi complex

The newly manufactured proteins coming from the ER travel through the layers of the

golgi complex

One of two of the interrelated functions that take place

the raw proteins are modified into their final form

Two of two of the interrelated functions that take place

the modified proteins are sorted and distributed to their final destination

These are membrane-enclosed sacs that contain hydrolytic acid


These are responsible for digesting and eliminating cellular waste products, such as bacteria, from the cell


These are also membrane-enclosed sacs that are smaller than lysosomes and contain several powerful oxidative enzymes; uses O2 to strip hydrogen from specific molecules


The powerplant of the cell


ATP abbv.

adenosine triphosphate

What is the ATP "currency" made up of

adenosine, 3 phosphate groups

What contains enzymes that are responsible for glycolysis?


A chemical process that breaks down the glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules to produce ATP


A process that goes through a cyclical series of eight separate biochemical reactions directed by the enzymes of the mitochondrial matrix to produce two more molecules of ATP from each glucose molecule

citric acid cycle

End product of Kreb cycle

2 more molecules of ATP from each glucose molecule

What mechanism is essential for cellular respiration; the intracellular oxidations of nutrients occurs in the

electron transport chain, mitochondrial cristae

Under _______________________ conditions, the breakdown of glucose cannot go beyond __________

anaerobic, glycolysis

Where is the ETC found?

the inner membrane of the mitochondria

FADH2 is the _________________________ that is created during the kreb's cycle, and utilized during the last part of _________________________

redox cofactor, ETC

What enzyme adds a phosphate group to ADP?

ATP synthase

These structures transport either mRNA or ribosomal units from the nucleus to the cytoplasm


These can move molecules such as proteins from the rough ER to the golgi apparatus

transport vesicles

Cell organization

cells, tissues, organs, systems

Types of tissue

connective, epithelial, muscle, nervous

3 types of muscle tissue

skeletal, cardiac, smooth

Smooth muscle is responsible for exerting _____________ and moving contents ___________________

pressure, forward

Muscle tissue is composed of cells specialized to ________________ and to generate ____________________

contract, force

These types of tissue comprises of cells specialized for initiation and transmission of electrical impulses necessary to control the body


3 parts of the neuron

axon, cell body, dendrites

Which part of the neuron is the input zone; receiving and integrating incoming signals?

cell body

Upper neck of the axon

axon hillock

AKA trigger zone; the site where action potentials are triggered

axon hillock

These release chemical messages in communication with other cells

axon terminals

Referred to as the conducting zone; afferent


Referred to as the output zone; efferent

axon terminals

This tissue is specialized for the exchange of materials between the cell and its environment


2 Structures of Epithelial Tissue

sheets, secretory glands

This tissue contains cells that specialized to connect, support, and anchor different body parts.

connective tissue

Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment


A common regulatory mechanism for maintaining homeostasis

negative feedback loop