Ecology ch.2


- A specific trait (ex. toxic compounds in a leaf)
- A process (the long development of ability to make to toxins in phylogeny)
- A change within lifetime ( reactions of a plant attacked by an herbivore)

Cations regarding the use of " adaptation

- Does the ' adaptation" enhance fitness
- Is the adaptation heritable?
- Adaptation do not result from " just so" stories.

Water thermal properties

- found in 3 forms
- high specific heat
- liquid resists changing to other forms
- greatest density at 4 C.


- a measure of ' thickness'


- a measure of resistance; now much friction occurs between layers in a fluid when these layer move relative to each other.


- Freshwater animals have higher solute concentrations in their tissue than the surrounding water
- Freshwater fish continuously gain water both when they consume food and when osmosis occurs across the mouth and gills, which are the most permeable tissue


- Saltwater animals have lower solute concentrations in their tissues than exist in their surrounding water.
- Saltwater animals drink large amounts of saltwater and release only small amounts of urine.
- The excess solutes are actively excreted out of th