10-13 years oldgrades 5-8
14-17 years oldgrades 9-12
late adolescence/early adulthood
18-21 years old
early to mid 20's
Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescence: Biosocial
-G stanley Hall "storm and stress"-stress is on hormones and physical changes as a driving force of behavior
Stienbergs's Dual Systems model
-two developing parts of the brain1. reward and punishment (develops first)2. inhibition -Maturational imbalance; like driving a car with no brakes
Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescence: Orgasmic
-Piaget -Recognize biology and context as driving forces of behavior.-Erikson - Biology/demands of society;8 stages of psychosocial development
Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescence: Learning
-Bandura-"Modeling": learning by observing others and imitating their behaviors.
Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescence: Sociological
Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescence: Historical/Anthropological
-Benedict-Adolescence is an invention of social conditions (school). Differences in transitions to adulthood between nonindustrialized vs. industrialized societies
t/f According to G. Stanley Hall, development is primarily influenced by the environment.
According to Karl Mannheim, conflict between adolescents and adults arises because:
They grow up in different social circumstances
Jim believes that adolescents imitate the behaviors of those they watch (modeled behavior) and that this is the driving force behind adolescent development. This view is consistent with the ___________ view of adolescence.
What might have been" -adolescents can do this children cannot
A type of logical reasoning in which you draw logically necessary conclusions from a general set of premises, or givens. Major intellectual accomplishment
Ability to comprehend higher-order abstract logic:
Puns, proverbs, metaphors, and analogies
Improvements in social cognition during adolescence is directly related to improvements in the ability
to think abstractly
-thinking about thinking-Monitoring one's own cognitive activity during thinking-Increased introspection: thinking about our own emotions.-Increased self-consciousness: thinking that others are thinking about us.-Able to engage in self-examination. This can lead to problems. . . . .
Difficulty differentiating one's own thoughts and feelings from those of other people
Confusing your own thoughts with those of a hypothesized audience for your behavior
Tendency to think that you and your thoughts and feelings are unique
Thinking in Multiple Dimensions
-Ability to see things as relative rather than as absolute.-Compared to children, adolescents are more likely to question others' assertions and less likely to accept "facts" as absolute truths. -Difficulties can arise between teenagers and their parents.
A type of logical reasoning in which you draw logically necessary conclusions from a general set of premises, or givens:
The ability to comprehend higher order logical problems, including puns, proverbs, metaphors, and analogies:
thinking about abstract concepts
Understanding the world comes through experiences. Interaction between biological change and environmental stimulation leads to intellectual growth.
-All children progress through 4 stages of development in the order they are listed without skipping stages or regressing.-Each stage is incorporated into the next stage.
4 stages of cognitive development
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Able to think abstractly and hypotheticallyCan formulate hypotheses or predictions in their headsPlan how to systematically test their ideas experimentallyImagine the results of their experiments
The Information-Processing View
5 areas of improvementAttentionMemorySpeedOrganizationMetacognition
sensory input -> sensory register-> attention -> short term memory storage -> encoding -> long term memory
What determines whether an event is likely to be recalled?Personal significanceDistinctivenessEmotional intensityLife phase of the event
mundane events more likely to be remembered in adolescence