PSY 302 Quiz 1 (Ch. 1&2)

early adolescence

10-13 years oldgrades 5-8

middle adolescence

14-17 years oldgrades 9-12

late adolescence/early adulthood

18-21 years old

emerging adulthood

early to mid 20's

Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescence: Biosocial

-G stanley Hall "storm and stress"-stress is on hormones and physical changes as a driving force of behavior

Stienbergs's Dual Systems model

-two developing parts of the brain1. reward and punishment (develops first)2. inhibition -Maturational imbalance; like driving a car with no brakes

Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescence: Orgasmic

-Piaget -Recognize biology and context as driving forces of behavior.-Erikson - Biology/demands of society;8 stages of psychosocial development

Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescence: Learning

-Bandura-"Modeling": learning by observing others and imitating their behaviors.

Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescence: Sociological


Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescence: Historical/Anthropological

-Benedict-Adolescence is an invention of social conditions (school). Differences in transitions to adulthood between nonindustrialized vs. industrialized societies

t/f According to G. Stanley Hall, development is primarily influenced by the environment.


According to Karl Mannheim, conflict between adolescents and adults arises because:

They grow up in different social circumstances

Jim believes that adolescents imitate the behaviors of those they watch (modeled behavior) and that this is the driving force behind adolescent development. This view is consistent with the ___________ view of adolescence.


Counterfactual thinking

What might have been" -adolescents can do this children cannot

Deductive reasoning

A type of logical reasoning in which you draw logically necessary conclusions from a general set of premises, or givens. Major intellectual accomplishment

Ability to comprehend higher-order abstract logic:

Puns, proverbs, metaphors, and analogies

Improvements in social cognition during adolescence is directly related to improvements in the ability

to think abstractly


-thinking about thinking-Monitoring one's own cognitive activity during thinking-Increased introspection: thinking about our own emotions.-Increased self-consciousness: thinking that others are thinking about us.-Able to engage in self-examination. This can lead to problems. . . . .

Adolescent egocentrism

Difficulty differentiating one's own thoughts and feelings from those of other people

Imaginary audience

Confusing your own thoughts with those of a hypothesized audience for your behavior

Personal fable

Tendency to think that you and your thoughts and feelings are unique

Thinking in Multiple Dimensions


Adolescent Relativism

-Ability to see things as relative rather than as absolute.-Compared to children, adolescents are more likely to question others' assertions and less likely to accept "facts" as absolute truths. -Difficulties can arise between teenagers and their parents.

A type of logical reasoning in which you draw logically necessary conclusions from a general set of premises, or givens:

Deductive Reasoning

The ability to comprehend higher order logical problems, including puns, proverbs, metaphors, and analogies:

thinking about abstract concepts

Piagetian View

Understanding the world comes through experiences. Interaction between biological change and environmental stimulation leads to intellectual growth.

Invariant sequence

-All children progress through 4 stages of development in the order they are listed without skipping stages or regressing.-Each stage is incorporated into the next stage.

4 stages of cognitive development

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

Formal operations

Able to think abstractly and hypotheticallyCan formulate hypotheses or predictions in their headsPlan how to systematically test their ideas experimentallyImagine the results of their experiments

The Information-Processing View

5 areas of improvementAttentionMemorySpeedOrganizationMetacognition




sensory input -> sensory register-> attention -> short term memory storage -> encoding -> long term memory

Autobiographical Memory

What determines whether an event is likely to be recalled?Personal significanceDistinctivenessEmotional intensityLife phase of the event

reminisce bump

mundane events more likely to be remembered in adolescence