Ion Transport Pumps and Generation of Ion Gradients

For a solute carrying a net charge, the___________ ________ and the electrical______ difference combine to form the__________ gradient that determines thetransport of the solute

concentration; gradient; potential; electrochemical

A membrane ________ (an electrical potentialdifference) is created when there is adifference in __________ ______ on the twosides of the membrane

potential; electrical; charge

ion pumps such as the ______ _______ pump uses energy from the _______ of ATP to establish and _______ ion gradients

sodium; potassium; hydrolysis; maintain

the sodium ______ pump transports ____ out of the cell against a steep ______________ ________ using energy directly from ____

potassium; ions; concentration; gradient; ATP

pump has a high _______ for ______ ions inside the cell. The number of sodium ions binding to the pump is _____

affinity; sodium; 3

the pump is then ______________ by ATP and changes _______

phosphorylated; conformation

in its new conformation, the pump has a _____ affinity for sodium ions and are ________ outside the cell

low; released

Potassium ions bind _________ the cell

outside

the pump is _________________ and changes conformation, taking the potassium ions into the cell

dephosphorylated

the _____ of the pump for potassium is ________ and potassium ions are released

affinity; lowered

the affinity and conformation of the pump has now returned to its _________ position

original

for each ATP hydrolysed, _____ sodium ions are transported out of the cell and 2 ________ ions are transported into the cell

3; potassium

sodium-potassium pumps are found in most ______ cells which accounts for a high proportion of the _____ metabolic rate in many organisms.

animal; basal

In the _____ _________, the sodium _______ created by the sodium potassium pump drives the active transport of _______.

small; intestine; gradient; glucose