The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, a scientific or industrial process, invention, method, or the like.


greatly developed beyond an initial stage

Arthur C. Clarke

British sci-fi writer, co writer fo the screen play for: 2001, A Space Oddesy. He was very interested in space travel, and popularizing science.


An extraordinary power or influence seemingly from a supernatural source

Enabling technology

An enabling technology is an invention or innovation, that can be applied to drive radical change in the capabilities of a user or culture


freedom or ability to obtain or make use of something


A device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy: Often made from lithium


The negative chamber of a battery, where electrons and packed together. Because electrons naturally repel other electrons, when the battery is connected to a wire, they will flow out.


The Positve chamber of the battery, which receives the electrons and passes the, to the anode.


A compound that when dissolved with water conducts an electric current, found in batteries to transfer electrons from the cathode to the anode.

Rechargeable Batteries vs normal

Rechargeable batteries can reverse the chemical reaction by feeding energy the opposite way. The reason why normal batteries die is because this reaction slowly changes the chemicals on the 2 chambers.

capacity (battery)

The amount of energy/chemical is in a certain battery.

Discharge (Battery)

The verb for when the battery discharges the electrons.

Wireless charging

When power (electricity) is transferred between two entities without using a wire. Currently, this involves using electromagnetic induction. The basic principle has been around since the days of Nikola Tesla

induction coil

A basis for the field of electromagnetism, and AC current, by wrapping wires around a magnet, and moving the magnet, it creates an electric current in the wires, but by putting an electric current through the wires, it creates an electromagnetic field.

Electromagnetic Field

A field of electromagnetic energy produced by an induction coil that can transfer voltages/energy to objects in the field.

Receiver Coil

The coil in your phone to convert the electromagnetic energy into electricity.

Qi wireless charging

1 of many standards for wireless charging.

Lithium ion

Currently the most popular type of battery popular with notebook computers that is more efficient than earlier types. Sometimes abbreviated as "Li-Ion" battery.

Why do batteries explode

Batteries explode because when the chambers are in contact, they can explode/ignite. Also, the only thing in between is a thin layer of polypropylene, and getting thinner with slimmer designs. Plus, the electrolyte is flammable.

What is Apple's response to Macbooks blowing up?

They consider it a normal and expected response, and people should be replacing their macbook batteries every year.

Is it safe to rely on a dangerous technology?

Ist depends on how much we rely, how dangerous, how important it is, what is the percent.

Samsung 7 Exploding Crisis

A case where Samsung 7 phones's batteries would explode, and 2 recalls were announced.

Silicon Anode

A different type of anode for a battery that has the possibility to store 20x the number of lithium ion.

Lithium metal

Another substance for an anode, it can hold even more lithium, but is more susceptible to fires,

How would an improvement on batteries impact us?

For most of us, maybe just more battery time, but that could prove crucial for larger corporations/governments, or poorer people.

Internet of Things

describes a system in which everyday objects are connected to the internet and in turn are able to communicate information throughout an interconnected system

Batteries' importance to IoT

Batteries are an important factor in creating the IoT and limited life is limiting the size of the IoT

Battery Alternatives

Solar Panels, Bacteria Cells, Etc.


Taking advantage of a weaker group

Is using bacteria to generate electricity exploitation?

Perhaps, but does it really matter if one is exploiting bacteria, after all, can exploitation perhaps be a right, or at least a fate that is acceptable?

Would using other animals like horses also be exploitation, how about if it is dead.

The debate is out about using animals, as some animal rights activists would an extension life has the right to remain undisturbed. Additionally, using dead creatures could go both ways. However, on the other hand, humans are a part of nature, and we are not nature's custodians, rather, we are a player in this game too, and should be free to do what we want to other animals.

electric grid

an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers..


an electromotive force or potential difference expressed in volts.


A device that plugs into one socket, and has a socket on the back with a different hole.


apparatus that changes direct current to alternating current, and different voltages

DC Power

direct current power, it transfers energy one way

AC Power

alternating current, the current alternates back and forth.

Why are plugs different

Because their were no standard when it was developed, and countries wanted to be unique.

Is the electricity behind the plugs different?

All electricity is just the flow of atoms. However, not all off these flows were made equal, and that is why there are different voltages. The two main ranges of voltages are 100-127 volts found in most of the americas (mostly north though) and 200-220 volts, found in Europe, Asia, and some parts of South America.

Why are voltages different in the world.

The US started with Thomas Edison's 110 volts, and since most of the infrastructure there was based on 110, they didn't switch. Also, the US brought it's standards to parts of the world. In Europe, since Nikola Tesla, the inventor of AC current used 240 volts, they followed suit, creating appliance for that voltage. Nowadays, even though it seems that the power in countries like the US and Japan use '110' it is actually 240 volts split in half.

Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)

Serbian-American inventor, engineer, and physicist whose made dozens of breakthroughs in the production, transmission, and application of electric power. He is best known for his development advocacy for alternating current (AC) electrical systems, along with developing the three-phase system of electric power transmission, and inventing an induction coil widely used in radio technology.


existing or functioning as though broken into separate parts; disorganized; disunified

Is having a fragmented social experience good?

A fragmented social experience can be good, where we each live a unique life, and society doesn't experience huge surges in consumption. However, this also means that our collaborative resources can't be pooled together as much.

empowerment vs dependency

While empowerment and dependency

Smart Home

A building that uses automation to control lighting, heating and cooling, security, entertainment, and appliances

Is there a limit to how much we should want our homes to be smart and comfortable?

While there may not be a limit where we shouldn't want our homes to be more smart confartable,


A substance that reduces the transfer of thermal energy. It is slow to heat up, so it stays cool in the summer, and in the winter, it stays warm. An insulating material's resistance to conductive heat flow is measured or rated in terms of its thermal resistance or R-value

Why homes maintain a comfortable temperature

Air Conditoning, Insulation and Heating

How Air a Conditioning Works

It is based on the process of liquids evaporating, which makes the surrounding area cooler. An A/C uses a liquid that evaporates at a very low temperature, and it starts as a very compressed gas after going through a compressor. Then, it's transferred to the evaporator, where it evaporates into a liquid, cooling the air. Finally, it goes back into the compressor, completing the cycle. The part of the A/C on the outside of the house is responsible for taking the heat created from the compression process, and dispersing it outside your house.

How A/C might be unfair

It might be unfair since it only really is shifting the heat to the outside, where the less fortunate spend more time. While the poorer might spend more time outside in the heat, the richer can stay in the controlled temperature for days.

How a heater works

It burns a fuels and delivers the heat through a series of pipes.

Should governments limit how much we control the climate of our private spaces

No, since it's our private spaces and we can do what we want with it, as long as it doesn't infringe on other people's rights.

Are A/C and heating bad for the environment

Currently, A/C and heating expend tons of energy, and pollute, so yes they are bad.

Types of air filters:

Flat fiberglass filters, Pleated filters, Electrostatic air filters, HEPA filters, Washable filters.

Should the government resolve inequality of comfort.

Not beyond a certain point, since people don't have to be super comfortable, but they are entitled to at least some comfort, not like sleeping on rocks.

To what degree does an enabling technology create a loop where people who lack access are less likely to get it.

Quite a large degree since it gets increasingly difficult to catch up to th the modern standards. However, often times, rather than having to go through all the steps, as soon as all of the steps are there and discovered, you might be able to skip a few. So not necessarily.

Should rich people be forced to breathe the same air as poor people?

It depends on how. Obviously, it is bad to bring down the rich people, but everyone would agree that it is good to try and raise up the poor people to try to lower that gap.

Will we disregard pollution outdoors?

No, not really as we are shifting our focuses to the environment, and that we are starting to realize that we can't be cooped up in our houses and controlled spaces forever.

House robots impact

House robots are robots/machines in the house doing our everyjobs like washing our clothes. This will likely make our lives even more convenient, and build upon previous technology.

vacuum cleaner

a machine that cleans floors and other surfaces by sucking up dust and dirt, its impact is that we no longer need to sweep, and has contributed to the decrease of the house keeping job.


a machine that washes dishes, and has decreased the house keeping role and the traditional dish washing chore.

washing machine

a machine used for washing clothes, it has contributed to the decrease of traditional roles of our lives.

How do these cooking technologies impact us

While we do grow more dependent on them, what's to say that isn't bad? It isn't everyday that we are forced into the wild with nothing but sticks and stones.


a device that is used for drying something (such as clothes or hair) by using heat or air


a brush used to clean your teeth


Products applied to the face, skin, or hair to improve appearance.

Does a piece of tech still count as an enabling technology if it doesn't make us more able?

That really isn't the definition of enables technology, the true definition is a technology that allows you to achieve something else, in this case, looking or seeming better.

What are some technologies that are the most underrated?

Plumbing, like toilets, logistics, farming, water, and other essentials that are often overlooked, but are the most important.

Where does your pee and poop go?

It goes into a sewer system to a treatment plant, where the water is treated to rid it of everything bad, then it is sent into a river or ocean or body of water etc.

How plumbing works

It works using fundamental principles of gravity and pressure, as well as the natures of water. The water is brought to you via pressure in a series of pipes, and is returned with gravity in a series of tubes.

High tech toilets

Toilets with added features like heating, music speakers and adjustable seats.

Trenchless sewers

A different method of a sewer pipe and installing one, a more convenient one.


A chemical intended to kill insects and other organisms that damage crops.

Should we make walls to protect ourselves from insects and animals

We don't need to, and there is no real economic benefit.

Are we treating traditional chemicals unfairly?

Perhaps. They don't really deserve it since they are critical to creating a good food supply, but also can be unhealthy for humans.

What makes an assembly line possible?

The entire world to be honest, since we are so interconnected, that it goes beyond the steel, conveyor belt, copper, plastic etc, it goes into time foundation of the building, and providing for the workers who did it, and the company etc.

Prime Mover

a person or establishment that is chiefly responsible for the creation or execution of a plan or project.

do newer technologies make manufacturing jobs less "dirty" but also less valued? Or does modern society's interest in manufactured products mean we respect those who manufacture them more than ever?

Well, manufacturing jobs are less valued due to automations, and a job in that field isn't really respected by many people nowadays especially in developed countries, where we are so removed from the factories where we can't really emphasize anymore.

Which assistive tech has been around the longest?

For me, it is the Walkers and the prostetics and the glasses, then the Wheelchairs and Hearing aids, finally, we have the speech to text and sign language to speech conversion.

Which ones have seen most developement

The speech to text, and is constantly being improved even right now.


device used by the visually impaired to convert written text into sounds

Impact of an optophone for musical notes

It would help with the role of music teacher, and would help with music creation, It could also pontentially end performances.

Are fitness trackers too helpful

I don't think that it is possible for these bands to be too helpful, although they might reach a point where it gets increasingly difficult for it to get more helpful.

What else can 3D printing do?

It can help create models, and contribute to cheaper models. Also, it lets students experiment with creating something physical. Personally, the biggest benefit of 3D printing is the fact that it is something very easy to do at home, and the blueprints are the most difficult part, but something that can be spread through the internet.

Should tech allow people to bypass limits they set for themselves.

Yes, but that doesn't always mean people should use that tech. Additionally, people should stick to what they chose to its full consequences. However, if it is something like left handedness, than that is ok no matter what.

Should left hand items cost as much as their counterparts?

They should, but can the government regulate that? No!

Where is contactless payment or alternative payment methods most common?

I would say places like china, where most people use wechat pay or alipay, completely abandoning credit cards, for QR codes, even with online payments.

How do QR codes work?

They work by connecting you to a link.

How do catchpas work?

They are basically just like a test question, with a question and an answer, that you need to type in.

Does limited access to these payment methods keep people from moving out of poorer communities?

While it is true that many shops in richer communities, and all online shops use credit cards exclusively, it's also true that most poor people still have a credit card, and that it makes no difference on people's income.

Should we make smart money?

I think with a lot of payment methods like google pay, apple pay, wechat pay, alipay, bitcoin etc, most of the money we have are pretty safe, so this is an unnecessary precaution, and even if there are some benefits, they are far outweighed by the cost of a government implementation.

How dramatic would it be without electricity.

We would essentially lose 200 years of progress and revert to perhaps caveman times, since that is what makes this world go round.

Can a technology that enables one disable another

Yes. Often it is created for this reason