3rd Quarter Exam Vocabulary [Honors]

octet rule

atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas; typically they strive to have 8 electrons in their outer shell

noble-gas configuration

another name for octet rule where atoms strive to have a full outer shell

valence electron

electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom

halide ion

Name for the type of ions formed by Group 7/17 elements (the halogens)

ionic bond

attractive force holding oppositely charged ions (cations and anions) together

electron dot structure

notation depicting valence electrons as dots around an element's atomic symbol (p. 195)

metallic bond

attractive force holding metals together that consists of an attraction of free-floating valence electrons to metal cations (p. 209)

covalent bond

bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms (p. 215)

polar bond

molecule in which one side is slightly negative and the opposite side is slightly positive due to unequal sharing of electrons

nonpolar bond

covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally by two atoms

structural formula

chemical formula showing arrangement of atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion

single covalent bond

bond that forms when two atoms share a pair (2) electrons (p. 226)

double covalent bond

bond that forms when two atoms share two pairs (4) electrons

triple covalent bond

bond that forms when two atoms share three pairs (6) electrons

alkali metals

Family of metals found in Group 1 that have 1 electron in their outer shell and are the most reactive family of the periodic table

alkaline earth metals

Family of metals found in Group 2 that have 2 electrons in their outer shell


Family of nonmetals found in Group 7/17 that form 'salts' and have 7 electrons in their outer shell

noble gases

Family of nonmetals found in Group 8/18 that have complete outer shells and are typically unreactive. Most other elements strive to reach the same electron configuration as noble gases

inner transition metals

Family of metals that are found below the main body of the periodic table and are composed of the actinide and lanthanide series


atom or group of atoms that has gained or lost electrons and has a charge (negative or positive) as a result


an ion with a positive charge


an ion with a negative charge

chemical formula

an expression indicating the number and types of atoms present in the smallest ratio of the substance (ex. NaCl) (p. 202)

polyatomic ion

tightly bound group of atoms behaving as a unit that has a positive or negative charge (ex. ammonium) (p. 232)


mixtures of two or more elements which properties superior to their individual elements


neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds

diatomic molecule

molecule containing only two atoms of the same element (ex. O2) (p. 223)

binary compound

compound that is composed of only two elements (p. 272)

molecular formula

chemical formula that shows the total number of atoms of each element in a substance

lone pair

pair of valence electrons not shared between atoms (p. 227)

bond dissociation energy

energy needs to break a bond between two covalently bonded atoms (p. 236); single bonds are the weakest and triple bonds are the strongest

resonance structure

structures used to envision the bonding in molecules that cannot be adequately described by a single structural formula; they are hybrids of all the single individual structures

bonding orbital

orbital overlap that results in a covalent bond

sigma bond

combining of two atomic orbitals in a direct overlap; all bonds (single, double, and triple) have one sigma bond

pi bond

partial overlap of two atomic orbitals; a double bond has one pi bond, while a triple bond has two pi bonds

VSEPR theory

repulsion between electron pairs causes molecular shapes to adjust so that the electron pairs stay as far apart as possible; tells only about the shape of a molecule (p. 242)

hybridization theory

the hybridization, or fusing, of many atomic orbitals to form equivalent hybrid orbitals; theory is used to tell the molecular shape and type of bonds formed (p. 244)


molecule with two opposite poles; one that is slightly negative and the other that is slightly positive

van der Waals forces

name for the two weakest intermolecular forces keeping molecules attracted to each other in a substance (p. 250)

dipole interactions

type of van der Waal force where polar molecules are attracted to each other due to their slight positive/negative poles

dispersion forces

weakest of all molecular interactions caused by the motion of electrons resulting in temporarily induced dipoles

hydrogen bonds

strongest of all intermolecular forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to an electronegative atom is weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom; occurs between N-H, F-H, and O-H bonds (p. 251)


S.I. unit of measurement of the amount of a substance; contains 6.02 x 10�� particles of whatever is being measured

Avogadro's number

6.02 x 10��, the number of particles in a mole (p. 308)

molar mass

the mass of a mole of any substance, in grams (p. 313)

standard temperature and pressure (STP)

a standard measure of temperature and pressure used to compare gases; 0�C and 101.3 kPa (1 atm)

percent composition

percent by mass of each element in a compound (p. 325)

empirical formula

the lowest whole-number ratio of the atoms or moles of the elements in a compound (p. 330)