Chapter 17: Resources

How do National Parks differ from National Monuments?

National monuments are given less funding and therefore less protection

Congaree National Park

South Carolina, one of the smallest national parks, preserves the largest remaining intact hardwood bottomland forest in the US, provides crucial habitat for many species


forests, grasslands, deserts, and wetlands, people have jobs connected to natural resources

Undisturbed Lands

adjacent to agricultural and urban areas provides vital ecosystem services such as wildlife habitat, flood, and erosion control, and groundwater recharge, breaks down pollutants and waste

How does the land use in the United States break down?

55%-privately owned by citizens, corporations, and non profit organizations and 3% native american tribes, the rest is owned by the federal govt

Which agencies administer federal land, and what is each agency responsible for? (Table 17.1)

three in the US department of interior-the bereau of land management:national resource lands, the fish and wildlife service, and the national park service: national wildlife refugees, and one in the US department of agriculture-the us forest service: nati

What should public planning of land use take into account?

ideally public planning of land use should take into account all repercussions o the proposed land use, not just its immediate affect


a protected area of land in which no human development is permitted

Wilderness Act 1964

authorized the US govt to set aside federally owned land that retains its primeval character and lacks permanent improvements of human habitation of the national wilderness preservations system

National Wilderness Preservation System

authorized the US govt to set aside federally owned land that retains its primeval character and lacks permanent improvements of human habitation of the national wilderness preservations system

Which state has the most wilderness area?


Wilderness Area

people who view wilderness as a nonrenewable resource support the designation of wilderness areas

National Park System

originally composed of such large, scenic areas in the West as the Grand Canyon, Yosemite Valley, and Yellowstone

What are some current concerns of the National Park System?

purpose was to protect natures natural beauty, but now has turned into more of a cultural and historical site, battlefields and historically important buildings and towns, then a place of scenic wilderness

Natural Regulation

a park management policy that involves letting nature take its course most of the time, with corrective actions undertaken as needed to adjust fgor changes caused by persuasive human activities

National Wildlife Refuge System

established in 1903 by President Theodore Roosevelt is the most extensive network of lands and waters committed to wildlife habitat in the world

What is the purpose of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

to preserve lands and waters for the conservation of fishes, wildlife, and plants of the US


important ecosystems that provide many gods and serves to support human society, occupy about one fourth of earths total land area

What is the role of forests in the hydrologic cycle?

* forests provide a variety of beneficial ecosystems services, forests influence local and regional climate conditions
* transpiration-water from the soil is absorbed by roots, transported through plants, and then evaporated from their leaves and stems


ecological simplification in which only one type of plant is cultivated over a large area

Sustainable Forestry

the use and management of forest ecosystems in a way that meets the news of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to use the forests

Ecologically Sustainable Forest Management

maintains a mix of forest trees, by age and species, rather than a monoculture, sustain biological diversity by providing improved habitats

Selective Cutting

mature trees are cut individually or in small clusters while the rest of the

Shelterwood Cutting

removal of all mature trees in an area over and extended period

Seed Tree Cutting

almost all trees are harvested from an area, a scattering of desirable trees is left behind to provide seeds for the regeneration of the forest


a logging practice in which all the trees in a stand of forest are cut, leaving just the stumps


the temporary or permanent clearance of large expanses of forest for agriculture or other uses

What are some causes of deforestation?

* deforestation results in decreased soil fertility through rapid leaching of the essential mineral nutrients found in most forest soils
* contributes to the extinction of many species
* contributes to regional climate change
* contributes to an increase

Why is the fact that U.S. national forests were created for multiple uses often a contentious issue?

bc they were originally created for timber, amount of timber cut down

Primary Succession

succession that occurs in an area in which no trace of a previous community is present

Secondary Succession

expanding forests= result of secondary succession on abandoned farms, commercial planting, on both private and public lands, and the gov't protection

Farm Bill

helps private landowners protect environmentally important forestlands from development

Conservation Easement

a legal agreement that protects privately owned forest or other property from development for a specified number of years

Tropical Rain Forest

found in central and south america, africa, and the southeast asia, but almost half of them re in just three countries: brazil the democratic republic of the congo, and indonesia

Tropical Dry Forest

regions subjected to a wet season and prolonged dry season

Why are tropical rain forests disappearing?

population growth, people need food so the forests are cleared for agricultural expansion , sometimes gov't policies, cut down for grazing land, causes: subsistence, agriculture, commercial logging, and cattle ranching

Subsistence Agriculture

family produces just enough food to feed itself, accounts for more than half of tropical deforestation

Slash-and-Burn Agriculture

first cut down the trees and allow them to dry, then they burn the area and plant crops immediately after burning

Commercial Logging

vast tracts of tropical rain forests, Southeast Asia, harvested for export abroad, most tropical countries allow commercial logging to proceed at a much faster rate than is sustainable

Cattle Ranching

employs relatively few local people=important in Latin America,

Agriculture for Export

beef exported to highly developed countries

Scrub Savanna

shrubby plants: may take over range

Why are tropical dry forests disappearing?

decrease bc of need for fuel wood


land that is not intensely managed and is used for grazing livestock


the most of vegetation of rangelands, have a fibrous root system, many roots diffuse network in the soil to anchor the plant

Carrying Capacity

when the carrying capacity of a rangeland is exceeded, grasses and other plants are said to be overgrazed


destuction of vegetation caused by so many grazing animals consuming the plants in a particular area that the plants cannot recover

Land Degradation

natural or human induced prices that decreases the future ability of the land to support crops or livestock


degradation of once fertile rangeland, agricultural land, or tropical dry forest into non productive desert

Who manages most of the U.S.'s public rangelands?

bureau of management

Prime Farmland

land that has the soil type, growing conditions, and available water to produce food, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops

Corn Belt

corn growing region in the Midwest encompassing parts of six states=prime farmland

What human activity is threatening many acres of prime farmland?

most of our prime agricultural land is falling victim to urbanization and suburban sprawl by being converted into parking lots, housing, and malls


lands that are usually covered by shallow water for at least part of the year and that have characteristic soils and water tolerant vegetation

List five causes of wetland destruction.

1) drainage for agricultural or mosquito control and dredging navigation
2) channelization and construction of dams, dykes, or seawalls for flood control
3) filling in for solid waste disposal
4) conversion for agricultural (fish farming)
5) mining for gr

Emergency Wetlands Resources Act

1986 authorized the the FWS to inventory and map the US wetlands

Sweetwater Marsh

constructed along san diego bay in 1984 by the california department of transportation, one of main purpose was to provide habitat for the light footed clapper rail

Wetlands Reserve Program

voluntarily program that seeks to restore privately owned wetlands that were previously drained (pg 365 in book)

Saltwater Wetlands

provide food and protective habitats for many aquatic animals, oceans nursery


built parallel to the beach, beach rapidly erodes away

Rolling Easements

prioritize public access to the shore over property owners rights to build walls

What are the 10 most endangered ecosystems in the U.S.? (Table 17.2)

South florida landscape, southern appalachian spruce-fir forests, longleaf pine forests and savannas, eastern grasslands, savannas, and barrens, northwestern grasslands and savannas, CA native grasslands, coastal communities in lower 48 states of hawaii,