Sociology Test #1

Barres_Does Gender Matter

1. Argues that "innate difference" position not supported by data2. Argues that discrimination and bias are important factors3. argues that this is more than a "free speech" issue because it impacts university community

Larry Summers

1) life/work balance or gender roles2) variation in natural aptitude at high end of distribution3) socialization/discrimination

Jacobs_detour on road to equality

-within occupation segregation exists-entry of women into male dominated jobs has stalled -index of dissimilarity and smaller wage gap has slowed-women paid only 77c for every male dollar

Blau and Kahn_gender pay gap

-raw wage gap about 18.4% in 2004-controlling factors reduces unexplained gap from 20.3% to 8.9% reduces wage gap to 16.5%

Gerson and Jacobs_work-home crunch

-men who work >40hrs increased from 21% in 1970 to 27% in 2000-women who work >40hrs increased from 5% to 11%-men wrk <30hrs increased from 5% in 1970 to 11% in 2000-women wrk <30hrs increased from 16% to 20%-households w children work less... women work less men actually work more -male breadwinner families down to 25% 3/5 two wage earners

Blair, Loy_competing devotions

-schemas of devotion: institutionalized ways of understanding one's life and place in larger social context-work schema: complete dedication to career , emotional/psychological rewards-family schema: traditional family division of labor-these can change depending on charecteristics of jobs changing, gender roles changing-highly successful professional women have more difficulty balancing work and family than husbands do

Stone_rhetoric and reality of opting out

-well educated upperclass white women who opt out of a job to raise children-story's article: found 60% women opt out, wrong because questions seemed leading, people ignored email survey-follow-up survey found only 4.1% women plan to leave permanently and 71.8% plan to take less than year off-found 86% are working compared to 82% 20 years ago

shorto_no babies

-most pop growth from developing countries (84-88%)-fertility rates decline with education, delaying marriage, and healthcare-the replacement rate- is 2.1 births per women-correlation btwn % of women working and fertility rate due to puplic support to help women juggle work and family-more egalitarian gender roles and higher levels of public support for working parents may explain why fertility rates are higher in NORTH europe than SOUTH europe (italy, spain and greece)-U.S. has higher fertility rate due to space, being less expensive, more flexible labor market and men being more helpful

weis_masculinity, whiteness and new economy

-men are taught masculinity, downside is traditional gender roles-Four tenets: historically, culturally, dominate and multiple masculinities exist-designed studies and found that although all men recognized that the old model of working class masculinities no longer applies, not all are able to embrace new and different ways of being a man1. dotcom recession= 2001-20022.greatrecession=2007-2009 -70% of lost jobs held by men-although majority of jobs lost were held by men, men gained disproportionally during recovery in terms of new jobs created

Rosin_ End of men

-article in atlantic magazine-suggested post industrial economy more favorable to women (3/4 jobs held by men lost)-women hold 51.4% managerial position (26% in 1980)-today women contribute 42% of household income (5% in 1970)-women earning 60% of bachelor degrees and more than 60% MA degrees

Krugman_in praise of cheap labor

-Globalization refers to interconnectedness of national economies and rise of global assembly line-argues that "sweatshop" jobs have to be compared with the local alternative, not developed country standards-are best hope of poor countries to improve populations standard of living -for developing countries this means more income, more jobs, increasing exchange w other countries, pollution and chear labor

Maquiladora factories

-Mexico's maquiladoras: created in 1965 in Bracero -debt crisis in 1980s promoted expansion moving them from borders into interior of country -switch from I.S.I. which meant exporting primary commodities and importing manufacturing goods to E.O.I. which meant exporting more-1994 NAFTA led to expansion, mostly women working but decline from over 77% in 1980 to 55% in 2000

Livingston_murder in juarez

-since 1993 between 350-1000+ women killed in juarez age between 12-25-2001 city averaged 8 murders a day possibly due to drug traffic rebelling-women killed had been employed or working in maquiladoras suggesting sexual or gender intent-this connection between violence and maquiladoras challenges traditional gender norms and division of labor

China's special economic Zones

-China's specail economic zones (SEZ) created in south, Guangdong in 1980, created as part of "open door" strategy- rely on female migrant workers from rural areas-growth in exports drove china to become 2nd largest economy

Kwan Lee

-study of "Liton" factories in Shenzhen and Hong Kong-dagonzai: work for the bosses-despotic localism describes the facroty, women value opportunities that these jobs provide-Despotic: refferring to managerial control over workers and their environment-Localism: refer to importance of ties between workers and supervisors from same hometowns and provinces

what does stone mean by choice gap?

- the difference between the decisions women could have made about their careers if they were not mothers or caregivers and decisions they had to make as mothers married to high octane husbands

comparable worth

-idea of equalizing pay for the same work


-perfect integration of men and women in jobs

difference between raw wage gap and unexplained wage gap

-the raw wage gap is less accurate: compares men and women. - the unexplained wage gap takes into account profession, region, and job consideration-for raw wage gap we would want to take out extremes, control for race, gender and quality of work

PSID data set vs. CPS data set

-cps trys to control unmeasurable data so psid is preferred because it is more accurate

The Bracero Program

-a guestworker program for farmworkers that permitted mexicans to enter the US on temporary work visas to work in agriculture -maquiladora program was created after the Bracero program was cancelled and migrant workers returned to mexico-was supposed to create new employment opportunity for men