is an energy providing nutrient in the form of sugar, starch, or dietary fiber and is the main source of energy


is the process by which plants turn carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates by using chlorophyll to capture energy from sunlight.


is the green pigment plants use to capture sunlight for photosynthesis


is a unit of sugar

Simple Carbohydrate

known as simple sugar, is a type of carbohydrate made from one or two units of sugar.


is a simple carbohydrates made of one sugar unit.


also known as dextrose, is a monosaccharide that is the primary source of energy in plants and animals

Blood glucose levels

is the amount of glucose circulating in the blood.


is a monosaccharide that is the sweetest of all sugar.


is a monosaccharide that is most often attached to glucose to formlactose (milk sugar)


also known as a double sugar, is a simple carbohydrate made of two attached sugar units.


is a disaccharide comprised of glucose and fructose.


also known as milk sugar, is a discharged comprised of glucose and galactose.


Also know as malt sugar, is a disaccharide comprised of two units of glucose

Complex carbohydrate

is a type of carbohydrate made from more than two attached sugar units.


Is a complex carbohydrate with a chain that generally ranges from three to eleven sugar units.


Is a complex carbohydrate with a chain usually consisting of hundreds to thousands of sugar units.


Is a polysaccharide made by plants to store long chains of glucose molecules


is an insoluble component of starch that forms an unbranched chain.


is a soluble component of starch that forms a branched chain .

Dietary Fiber

is an indigestible form of carbohydrate found in vegetables, fruit, and grains.


is a nonpolysaccharide from of fiber that provides rigidity and support for the woody cell walls of plants.

Soluble fiber

is dietary fiber that dissolves in water.

Protein sparing

is the process by which carbohydrate and lipids supply energy so that the main functions of protein can be fulfilled.


is a polysaccharide made and used by the liver and muscles to store long chains of glucose.


is a hormone produced by the pancreas that is necessary for regulating blood sugar levels.


is the breakdown of carbohydrates due to the the actions of bacteria, microorganisms, or yeast.

Lactic acid

is a tupe of organic, colorless acid made by red blood cells and muscle tissues.


is a pancreatic hormone sent to the liver to trigger the conversion of glycogen to glucose for energy

Add sugar

is any sugar not naturally occurring in a food and added during processing or preparation.

High-fructose corn syrup

is corn syrup that has been treated with an enzyme to convert part of its glucose to fructose.


is a natural sweetener derived from a plant native to South American

Food additive

is a substance added to food to preserve or improve its appearance, texture, flavor, and/or nutritional qualities.

Artificial Sweetner

is an intensely sweet, nonnutritive synthetic substance with zero to almost no clories.


is the edible fruit, in the form of kernel r seed, of a grass.

Cereal grain

is a grain that is derived from plants in the grass family.


is a seed that is classified as a grain but is derived from broadleaf plants instead of grasses.


also known as a hull, is the inedible, protective outer covering of grain.


Is the tough outer layer of grain that cover the endosperm.


is the smallest part of grain kernel and contains a small amount of natural oil as well as vitamins and minerals.

Whole Grain

is a grain that has only had the husk removed.

Cracked grain

is a whole kernel of grain that has been cracked by being placed between rollers.

Refined grains

is a grain that has been processed to remove the bran, germ, or both.

Milled grain

is a refined grain that has been ground into a fine meal or powder.

pearled grain

is a refined grain with a pearl like appearance that results from having been scrubbed and tumbled to remove the bran.

Flaked grain

also known as rolled grain.. is a refined grain that has been rolled to produce a flake.

glycemic response

is a measur indicating the rate at which blood sugar rises after eating

Glycemic index

is a measure indicating the rate at whcih an ingested food causes blood sugar level to rise

tooth decay

also known as dental caries, is condidtion in which teeth decay due to acids produced by bacterial growth and improper dental care.


is the accumulation of bacteria and food residue on teeth that can cause tooth decay and gum disease


is a condition that results from low blood glucose levels.


is a bitter, poisonous alkaloid that most commonly develops in potatoes and tomatoes.


is the process of removing moisture from food.


is the process in which crystals precipitate from a solution to form a solid in the presence of heat.

Supersaturated solution

is a solution in which a substance has been dissolved into another substance in an amount greater than what is usually possible as a result.


is a process in which a gelatinized starch causes a thickened liquid to turn into a gel as it cools.


also known as weeping, is the separation of a liquid from a gel.


is the process of splitting a substance onto smaller parts by the addition of water.


is an organic pigment found in orange or yellow vegetables.


Is an organic pigment found in purple, dark red, and white vegetable.

Modified starch

is a starch that has been chemically or physically altered from its original state.