250 Chapter 8

A powerful set of techniques that helps to manipulate and analyze genetic material

DNA technology

3 parts of tool kit in DNA technology

restriction enzymes, DNA vectors, host organisms

Recombinant DNA technology refers to set of techniques for recombinating genes from different _______ and transferring this recombinant DNA into a _____ where it may be expressed

source in vitro; cell (in vivo)

Cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequence

restriction enzymes

What is used for permanent union of DNA molecules

DNA ligase

Used for moving DNA from test tubes into cells


Why are bacteria commonly used on hosts

easily isolation of DNA, bacterial cultures grow quickly, rapidly cloning inserted foreign gene

Refers to the movement of genetic info between organisms

gene transfer

Combining of genes (DNA) from two different cells


When genes pass from parents to offspring

vertical gene transfer

Pass genes from microbes of their same generation

horizontal (lateral) gene transfer

A change in organisms characteristics because of transfer of genetic info


DNA that has been released from an organisms after the cell is lysed and DNA is no longer incorporated into chromosomes

naked DNA

Released into medium and apparently facilitates entry of new DNA into cell

competence factor

Naked DNA is part of...


Competence factor is part of...


Enzyme that cuts up DNA

DNA exonuclease

2 things that are needed during transformation

DNA transport proteins and DNA exonuclease

Method of transferring genetic material using bacteriophage


Virus that can infect bacteria

bacteriophage (phage)

Composed of a core of nucleic acid covered by protein coat


Phage capable of infecting a bacterium....

attaches to a receptor site on cell wall

Capable of causing infection and destruction and death of bacterial cell

virulent phage

Virulent phage can also be considered known as..

lytic cycle

Ordinarily doesn't cause a disruptive infection

temperate phage

Temperate phage can also be considered known as..

lysogenic cycle

DNA that is incorporated into host bacterium's DNA


Persistence of a prophage without phage replication and destruction of bacterial cell


Several_______ are known to carry out specialized transduction

lysogenic phages

Phages usually insert at a______when they integrate with a chrmosome

specific location

________inserts into E. coli chromosome between gal gene and bio gene

lambda phage

1st stage of generalized transduction

bacteriophage infection of host bacterium initiates lytic cycle

2nd stage of generalized transduction

chromosome is broken into fragments which can be picked up and packaged with phage DNA

3rd stage of generalized transduction

particles are released and infect another bacterial cell

4th stage of generalized transduction

host acquires genes that were brought along (transduced) from previous cell

When genetic info is transferred from one cell to another


Conjugation requires....

contact between donor and recipient cells

Transfers much larger quantities of DNA compared to other mechanisms


Lambda phage is near...

site of prophage

F+ cells contain..... and make.....

F (fertility) plasmids; F pilus

F- cells lack...

F plasmids

Conjugation pilus bridge which it attaches to F- cell

F+ (sex pilus)

Can induce more than 1000x the number of genetic recombinations seen in F+ and F-


Hfr stands for

high frequency recombination

Hfr strains arise from..... when.....

F+ strains; F plasmid is incorporated into bacterial chromosome at one of several possible sites

When Hfr cell serves as donor in conjugation....

F plasmid initiates transfer of chromosomal DNA

Part of F plasmid is transferred along with adjacent chromosomal genes

initiating segment

DNA incorporated into a chromosome can....

separate it and again become an F plasmid (F+)

Direct the synthesis of proteins that self assemble into conjugation pili

F plasmids

Carry genes that provide resistance to various antibiotics

resistance plasmids

Direct the synthesis of bacteriocidal proteins called bacteriocins

other plasmids

Carry genes that cause disease

virulent plasmids

Tumor inducing plasmids primarily affect...


Some plasmids contatin genes for...

catabolic enzymes

Ability of genetic sequence to move from one location to another


A mobile genetic sequence

transposable element

The simplest type of transposable element

insertion sequence

Transposable element that contains genes for transposition


Refers to purposeful manipulation of genetic material to alter characteristics of organisms in desired way

genetic engineering

Allows transposition of genes from one location on a chromosome to another

genetic fusion

Accomplished by enzymatically removing cells walls of organisms of 2 strains and mixing the resulting protoplasts

protoplast fusion

Conjugation is an example of...

horizontal gene transfer

Year of discovery of transformation


Who discovered transformation?


When bacterial DNA transduced is limited to one or a few genes lying adjacent to prophage

specialized transduction