A powerful set of techniques that helps to manipulate and analyze genetic material
3 parts of tool kit in DNA technology
restriction enzymes, DNA vectors, host organisms
Recombinant DNA technology refers to set of techniques for recombinating genes from different _______ and transferring this recombinant DNA into a _____ where it may be expressed
source in vitro; cell (in vivo)
Cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequence
What is used for permanent union of DNA molecules
Used for moving DNA from test tubes into cells
Why are bacteria commonly used on hosts
easily isolation of DNA, bacterial cultures grow quickly, rapidly cloning inserted foreign gene
Refers to the movement of genetic info between organisms
Combining of genes (DNA) from two different cells
When genes pass from parents to offspring
vertical gene transfer
Pass genes from microbes of their same generation
horizontal (lateral) gene transfer
A change in organisms characteristics because of transfer of genetic info
DNA that has been released from an organisms after the cell is lysed and DNA is no longer incorporated into chromosomes
Released into medium and apparently facilitates entry of new DNA into cell
Naked DNA is part of...
Competence factor is part of...
Enzyme that cuts up DNA
2 things that are needed during transformation
DNA transport proteins and DNA exonuclease
Method of transferring genetic material using bacteriophage
Virus that can infect bacteria
Composed of a core of nucleic acid covered by protein coat
Phage capable of infecting a bacterium....
attaches to a receptor site on cell wall
Capable of causing infection and destruction and death of bacterial cell
Virulent phage can also be considered known as..
Ordinarily doesn't cause a disruptive infection
Temperate phage can also be considered known as..
DNA that is incorporated into host bacterium's DNA
Persistence of a prophage without phage replication and destruction of bacterial cell
Several_______ are known to carry out specialized transduction
Phages usually insert at a______when they integrate with a chrmosome
________inserts into E. coli chromosome between gal gene and bio gene
1st stage of generalized transduction
bacteriophage infection of host bacterium initiates lytic cycle
2nd stage of generalized transduction
chromosome is broken into fragments which can be picked up and packaged with phage DNA
3rd stage of generalized transduction
particles are released and infect another bacterial cell
4th stage of generalized transduction
host acquires genes that were brought along (transduced) from previous cell
When genetic info is transferred from one cell to another
contact between donor and recipient cells
Transfers much larger quantities of DNA compared to other mechanisms
Lambda phage is near...
site of prophage
F+ cells contain..... and make.....
F (fertility) plasmids; F pilus
F- cells lack...
Conjugation pilus bridge which it attaches to F- cell
F+ (sex pilus)
Can induce more than 1000x the number of genetic recombinations seen in F+ and F-
Hfr stands for
high frequency recombination
Hfr strains arise from..... when.....
F+ strains; F plasmid is incorporated into bacterial chromosome at one of several possible sites
When Hfr cell serves as donor in conjugation....
F plasmid initiates transfer of chromosomal DNA
Part of F plasmid is transferred along with adjacent chromosomal genes
DNA incorporated into a chromosome can....
separate it and again become an F plasmid (F+)
Direct the synthesis of proteins that self assemble into conjugation pili
Carry genes that provide resistance to various antibiotics
Direct the synthesis of bacteriocidal proteins called bacteriocins
Carry genes that cause disease
Tumor inducing plasmids primarily affect...
Some plasmids contatin genes for...
Ability of genetic sequence to move from one location to another
A mobile genetic sequence
The simplest type of transposable element
Transposable element that contains genes for transposition
Refers to purposeful manipulation of genetic material to alter characteristics of organisms in desired way
Allows transposition of genes from one location on a chromosome to another
Accomplished by enzymatically removing cells walls of organisms of 2 strains and mixing the resulting protoplasts
Conjugation is an example of...
horizontal gene transfer
Year of discovery of transformation
Who discovered transformation?
When bacterial DNA transduced is limited to one or a few genes lying adjacent to prophage