School-Aged Issues Exam 2

Child Find

services that are defined by IDEA '04 as extending across the age span from birth to 21 years, but they are particularly critical in the infant and toddler years. Infants and toddlers receive services under an IFSP. On a child's third birthday the family

IDEA 2004

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act in 2004. Part C services may be used to prevent disability as well as provide early intervention for children with identified disabilities. It is noted as "urgent and substantial need to enhance the


Individual Family Service Plan. Infant and toddlers may receive services under this. If they are diagnosed with disabilities or have developmental risks.

Hearing loss

decrease in the ability to hear. It can vary from mild to total loss of hearing and occur in one or both ears. There are three parts of the ear. Problems that contribute to hearing loss can occur in one or more of these parts.

Greenspan's 4 Stages:

1. Engagement (0-8 months)
2. Two-Way Communication (6-18 months
3. Shared Meaning (18-36 months):
4. Emotional Thinking (3-5 years)


0-8 months, alert to sights and sounds, follows caregiver with eager eyes, joyful smiles in response to interesting facial expressions, will engage, disengage, reengage in short periods, learning to trust, love, fell emotionally close

Two-Way Communication

6-18 months, begins to respond to caregiver gestures and to gesture in return, initiates interactions and looks expectantly for response--points to show wants and desires, initiates comforting and closeness by pulling on leg or initiating hug, expresses a

Shared Meaning

18-36 months, engages in pretend play with others, engages adult in pretend dramas - nurturing and care/car crashing and monster chasing/enjoys playing alone, combines words and gestures "Me mad" "No bed", communicates desire for closeness: word + gesture

Emotional Thinking

3-5 years, begins to distinguish real vs not; logical, pretend play more complex; logical sequence, can follow rules and respond to limit; feels optimistic and confident, begins to reason about feelings and connect them to behaviors, knows what to say or

Joint Attention/Joint Reference

begins with reciprocal imitation. Key features in the progression form presymbolic to symbolic functioning, which in turn is critical to the development of language. They scaffold their infant and toddler's attention to key features and patterns in experi

Nonverbal Tool Use

responds to gaze and gestures

Language Sampling

The goal is to elicit a sample of the child's most mature language and/or communication skills possible. Should be video recorded when assessing the communicative abilities of prelinguistic infants and toddlers or any child who communicates primarily thro

Hanen's OWL

It takes two to talk" Observe, Wait, and Listen.

Percentile Rank

indicates the student's standing relative to other students in the same grade in the norming group. A student's percentile rank on a norm-referenced test tells us what proportion of students in the norm group scored the same or lower than a target student

Greenspan and Wieder's DIR, 2005:

�Developmental understanding of the child's emotional development relative to six developmental milestones�shared attention and regulation, engagement and relating, purposeful emotional interaction, social problem solving, creating ideas, and connecting i


: also called protowords, they are prior to first words. These are world like forms with recognizable and consistent sound patterns, but they do not refer symbolically to consistent referents. Word-like forms with recognizable and consistent sound pattern


using actions to play that they unable or not allowed to perform in real life (i.e., cooking, driving a car)

Possessive Words

the fastest typically developing vocabulary growth in age 2.

Millieu Teaching Techniques

Designed for "preschool children with significant cognitive and language delays; children with autism spectrum disorders; and children from high-risk, low income families. Modeling, mand modeling, time delay, and incidental teaching. The program relies on

Zone of proximal development

the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help.

Language is Key (CAR)

Comment on your child's interests, Ask questions about those interests, Respond to your child's utterances by adding a little more information.

Fast Mapping

(quick incidental learning; QUIL) of new word. Attention, cognition, speech perception, association of word with referent. Cognitive mapping of additional information about the word in multiple meaningful encounters


Type Token Ratio - measure of vocabulary variation within a written text or a person's speech. The type-token ratio is shown to be a helpful measure of lexical variety within a text. It can be used to monitor changes in children and adults with vocabulary

Childhood Apraxia of Speech

involves central motor-planning difficulties affecting voluntary oral-motor movements, including speech, but without affecting peripheral reflexive functions. It affects both the accuracy and sequencing of phoneme production. Has an estimated prevalence o

Syntactic expansion

adding grammatical complexity to a child's telegraphic productions

Ototoxicity-hearing loss

: the quality of being toxic to the ear (oto-), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibular system; it is commonly medication-induced.

Biological Risk:

occurs when a history or prenatal, perinatal, neonatal, or early postnatal evens (low birth weight, prematurity, asphyxia, intracranial hemorrhage) suggests the possibility that early insult to the child's central nervous system may contribute to developm

Environmental Risks:

occurs when the infant (who might otherwise be biologically sound) encounters life experiences (abuse or neglect) that place him or her at risk for developmental delay.

Service Delivery environments

Home and family contexts, Classroom based contexts; general education; resource rooms; self contained, Pull-out contexts; small group; individual, Social contexts, Employment contexts.

Assessing Early Words

Nelson (1985) reported that learning to talk consists of a system of shared meanings; using words form familiar contexts. Around 2 years of age a naming explosion occurs with rapid vocabulary growth. Possessive words (dog's) are the fastest typically deve

Stockman's Minimal Competency

: have 4 domains for typical developing children of African-American English decent at age 3. Black English Sentence Scoring - assessment tools for children learning AAE. DELV - Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variance assessing AAE.


The act or process of identifying or determining the nature and cause of a disease, disorder, or difference through evaluation of patient history, examination, and review of diagnostic testing. The opinion derived from such an evaluation


quick incidental learning


what children move to after an IFSP.


using 1 object to represent another (block as car).


using actions in a playful manner away from typical settings (playing school with a teacher and student)

Mand Model Techniques

Adults should require the child to make a communicative exchange (using words, picture icons or sign language) to get a desired item. 1. The parent/teacher provides a variety of material in a play situation (or eating situation) to create communication op

Incidental Teaching

provides structured learning opportunities in the natural environment by using the child's interests and natural motivation. Was developed to increase language and social responses by maximizing the power of reinforcement and encouraging generalization (H

Direct Service Delivery

during the years from 3-5, clinicians often work directly with children in small groups or in one-on-one clinical interactions.

Indirect Service Delivery

Applies with parents and preschool teachers. Indirect roles include helping preschool teacher maximize opportunities within preschool classroom environments to enhance children's language, play, and emerging literacy skills.

Cognitive Mapping

mapping additional info about the word in multiple meaningful encounters


telling about an experience to someone who was not there


telling about a past event in the presence of someone who was there


describing an ongoing activity and planning for the future

Conductive Hearing Loss

Hearing loss caused by something that stops sounds from getting through the outer or middle ear. This type of hearing loss can often be treated with medicine or surgery.

Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Hearing loss that occurs when there is a problem in the way the inner ear or hearing nerve works.

Mixed Hearing Loss

Hearing loss that includes both a conductive and a sensor neural hearing loss.

Sematic extension

adding content as well as form to child's productions