EXS Exam2

phase 1 resistance training

stability and mobility training

phase 2 resistance training

movement training

phase 3 resistance training

load training

phase 4 resistance training

performance training

phase 1 CRF training

aerobic-base training

phase 2 CRF training

aerobic-efficiency training

phase 3 CRF training

anaerobic-endurance training

phase 4 CRF training

anaerobic-power training

ACE IFT Model is built on...


two principal training components of ACE IFT Model

functional movement and resistance training.
cardiorespiratory training

utilize ACE IFT Model w/ variety of clients, CPT must understand how to...

develop and continually enhance rapport.
assess which stage a client is in for each training component.
design exercise programs in each component.
integrate and progress each component to provide clients w/ comprehensive training solutions.

phase 1 stability and mobility training

improve client's posture.
exercise selection focus on core and balance.
basic assessments: posture, balance, movement, ROM (ankle, hip, shoulder complex, thoracic and lumbar spine).

phase 2 movement training 5 primary movements

bend and lift.
single leg movements.
pushing movements.
pulling movements.
rotational movements.

timeframe for movement training

2-8 weeks

phase 3 load training

muscular strength and endurance introduced

phase 4 performance training emphasizes...

specific training to improve speed, agility, quickness, reactivity, and power.

CRF training focus on...

steady-state training

aerobic-base training builds improvements in...

health, endurance, energy, mood, caloric expenditure.

aerobic-efficiency training introduce intervals to improve...

health and fitness.
client's ability to utilize fat as a fuel source.

anaerobic-endurance training primary focus...

improve performance. (athletes)

anaerobic-power training primary focus...

building on previous training, while also introducing new intervals for anaerobic power.
short duration, high intensity.

initial communication w/ clients

build foundation for personal relationship.
gather info on goals and objectives.
taking time to get to know client, discover characteristics is important.

four basic personality styles:

director, deliberator, collaborator, expressor.

different levels of listening

indifferent, selective, passive, active

common methods of measuring HR in a fitness setting

telemetry and palpation

blood pressure

outward force exerted by the blood on the vessel walls. measured w/in the arterial system.

SBP represents

the pressure created by the heart as it pumps blood into circulation via ventricular contraction.

DBP represents

the pressure that is exerted on the artery walls as blood remains in the arteries during the filling phase of the cardiac cycle.

BP classification

normal <120 & <80.
prehypertension 120-139 or 80-89.
hypertension >140 or >90.


ratings of perceived exertion.

common trends in RPE scale

men tend to underestimate exertion, while women overestimate.

static posture represents...

alignment of the body's segments.

static postural assessment may offer valuable insight into...

muscle imbalance at a joint and muscles around a joint.
altered neural action of muscles moving and controlling the joint.
potentially dysfunctional movement.

muscle imbalance and postural deviations correctible factors:

repetitive movements, awkward positions and movements, side dominance, lack of joint stability or mobility, imbalanced strength-training programs.

muscle imbalance and postural deviations non-correctible factors:

congenital conditions, some pathologies, structural deviations, certain types of trauma.

deviation 1

ankle pronation/supination.

ankle pronation forces rotation at the...



hip adduction.

hip adduction is...

a lateral tilt of the pelvis that elevates one hip higher than the other.

deviation 3

hip tilting [anterior or posterior].

anterior pelvic tilt occurs in...

individuals with tight hip flexors.

deviation 4

shoulder position and thoracic spine.

deviation 5

head position. forward head position is very common.

what is a clearing test

test that uncover issues that individual did not know existed. movements that require elevation

why conduct a clearing test

ensure that pain is not exacerbated by movement.

clearing tests

cervical spine, shoulder impingement, low back.

bend and lift screen

examine symmetrical lower extremity mobility and stability, upper extremity stability during a bend and lift movement.

hurdle step screen

examine simultaneous mobility of one limb and stability of the contralateral limb while maintaining both hip and torso stabilization.

shoulder push stabilization screen

examine stabilization of the scapulothoracic joint during closed kinetic chain pushing movements (push up).

shoulder pull stabilization screen

examine clients ability to stabilize the scapulothroacic joint during closed kinetic chain pulling movement.

thoracic spine mobility screen

examine bilateral mobility of the thoracic spine.

flexibility and muscle length testing

thomas test, PSL raise, apley's scratch test, shoulder flexion/extension, external/internal rotation.

balance and core tests

sharpened romberg test, stork-stand,

five primary movements performed during ADL's

bending/raising and lifting/lowering movements.
single-leg movements.
pushing movements.
pulling movements.
rotational movements.

deviations during bend and lift

ankles collapse inward/feet turn outward--> tight soleus, lateral gastroc, &peroneals.
knees move inward--> tight hip adductors, tensor fascia latae.

deviations during hurdle step

hip adduction/stance-leg hip rotation (inward) -->tight hip adductors.
torso lateral tilt, forward lean, rotation--> lack of core stability.

deviations during shoulder push

exhibits winging

deviations during thomas test

lowered thigh does not touch table, knee cannot flex 80degrees--> tight hip flexor.
lowered thigh does not touch table but knee flexes 80 degrees--> tight iliopsoas.

deviations PSL raise

raised leg <80 degrees-->tight hamstrings

what type of joint is the foot


what type of joint is the ankle


what type of joint is the knee


what type of of joint is the hip


what type of joint is the lumbar spine


what type of joint is the thoracic spine


what type of joint is the scapulothoracic


what type of joint is the glenohumeral


describe force coupling relationships

muscles rarely work in isolation, but instead function as integrated groups

outer layer of core

rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, erector spinae, ilopsoas, latissimus dorsi

inner layer of core

transverse abdominis, multifidi, quadratus lumborum, deep fibers of the internal oblique, diaphragm, pelvic floor musculature and the adjoining fasciae.

stability lumbar spine

core function: isolated activation of core musculature.

mobility of pelvis and thoracic spine

mobilize the pelvis and thoracic spine in all 3 planes w/out a loss of lumbar stabilization

stability of scapulothoracic spine

promote stability w/in the scapulothoracic region

mobility and stability of the distal extremities

promote distal mobility and stability w/in the extremities.


center of mass; represents that point around which all weight is evenly distributed.

progression and regression of balance

hip-width stance narrow stance --> staggered stance split stance --> tandem stance --> single leg stance

glute dominance

pushing hips backward, creating hip hinge movement

quad dominance

driving the tibia forward, placing greater load on the ACL.

benefits of RT

increase muscle fiber and contractile strength.
increased physical capacity

2 long term physiological adaptations to RT

increased muscle strength and increased muscle size (hypertrophy)

training variables

needs assessment on client.
exercise frequency,

training frequency

beginner 2-3 times per week
intermediate 3-4 times per week
advanced 4-7 times per week

training volume (sets)

general muscle fitness 1-2
muscle endurance 2-3
hypertrophy 3-6