Japan's Modern Revolution midterm


Japan's name for itself at the beginning of the 18th century.


Islands south of Japan (Okinawa) that were a separate kingdom.


Leaders of the feudal domains in Japan who were subordinate only to the shogun.

Tokugawa Ieyasu

(1542-1616) The last of the great warlords and the founder of the Tokugawa bakufu. He became the first shogun and unified the rule of Japan. He was part of the five-man council whose job it was to see that Hideyoshi's son became the ruler of Japan, but he


The administration that ruled the Tokugawa shogunate. It was meant to be a military government, as the term means "government in a tent.


Meant to be a warrior king like those of Europe, although the country already technically had an emperor. Tokugawa Ieyasu was the first one.


A warrior class in Japan that was meant to defend Japan from its enemies. For this, they received koku, or rice payments, and other benefits for their status.


The emperor. He helped connect Japan to the mystical gods.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

(1537-1598) Nobunaga's lieutenant, he overthrew his former leader and became a premier statebuilder in Japanese history. He separated the warrior and peasant classes, which led to more autonomy for peasants and the rise of urbanization in the form of cast

Alternate attendance

(sankin k?tai) Daimyo required to alternate residence between Edo, the shogun's capital (now modern Tokyo) and their home territory. Usually meant one year at Edo, one year at their home domain. The policy was created by Ieyasu. The need for travel led to

Before the Dawn

A book written by Shizamaki Toson that follows Toson's father, a wealthy peasant, through the period leading up to the Meiji Restoration.

Oda Nobunaga

(1534-1582) One of the three great unifiers, he acquired muskets and used them to help build his power. He implemented a "reign of terror" where he breached many rules of warfare, and was overthrown by his lieutenant, Toyotomi Hideyoshi.


Meaning closed country, this refers to the policy of the Tokugawa to expel Iberians, crack down on Christianity and prohibit Japanese travel abroad beginning in the 17th century. The term was coined by interpreter Shizuki Tadao, who took the term from the

Shimabara Rebellion

In 1637, a rebellion occurred in an area with a high Catholic population. This was a warning sign for the Tokugawa, and all Christianity was banned in 1639.


(Dutch Studies) These began around 1720 when the ban on Chinese books about the West was lifted by Tokugawa Yoshimune, who wished to learn what the West had to say about calendrical reform and mathematics. In 1771, this led to the realization that the Dut


(National Studies). Movement towards learning about Japan and how great it was. Emphasized the kami.

Decree calling for the expulsion of foreign ships

(1825) After several troubling occurrences (i.e. the Golovnin Incident in 1811 and the Phaeton Incident in 1808), the Bakufu declared that all foreign ships were to be driven away, with force if necessary.

Kyoho Reforms

Instituted by Yoshimune, these were emergency measures that sought to alleviate the financial pressures on many samurai in the 1720s. In exchange for alleviated alternate attendance requirements, the bakufu forced loans levied on the daimyo lords. It also

Tanuma Okitsugu

Leading member of the bakufu in the 1760s and 1770s, he issued many reforms, such as one that taxed commercial activity to take the strain off of rice farmers.


The smashings were riots in Edo in the 1770s in response to the Tenmei Failure. The riots specifically targeted rice merchants in order to redistribute rice. They were also attached to the idea of Yonaoshi, or Millenarian world renewal, which said that th

Kansei Reforms

Implemented by Matsudaira Sadanobu in response to Tanuma's reforms, they curbed bakufu expenditure and eliminated samurai debts older than 20 years.

Emperor Kokaku

Emperor at the turn of the 19th century, he is responsible for the Title Incident of 1792-93. He wanted his dad to be given title "Abdicated Emperor" even though he'd never been emperor. Matsudaira says no, some court officials side with Kokaku (which had

Tokugawa Ienari

Reigned for 40 years (1797-1837). Many wives with many children, married to create ties to domains. Bakufu became lax under his leadership, lulled into a false sense of security.

Tempo Period

Declared by the bakufu in 1830, it meant heavenly imperial protection. A crisis soon followed, as another famine commenced. Although Edo avoided riots, other places rioted due to the preferential treatment. There was no official bakufu response, although


Starting in 1830, peasants abandoned their rice paddies en masse to join a giant pilgrimage to Ise Shrine (for the Sun Goddess). Started by rumors that sun amulets were falling from the sky. Approximatel one in six joined the pilgrimage, which became a ma

Oshio Heihachiro

The young samurai led a rebellion in Osaka in 1837. He gave out a pamphlet calling the people to arms, but few came. He got crushed. He was a follower of the Chinese scholar Wang Yang-ming, who stressed action (in home life). He took this to the extreme a

Mizuno Tadakuni

Put in charge of of "Council of Elders" to institute reforms in 1841. His reforms focused on moral rectitude at first, as vice in the cities was viewed as a cause of farmers leaving their fields. He also worked to suppress domain monopolies, as these drov

Bunka/Bunsei Period

Period of economic success, tied to flowering cultural growth. An example would be Kidai Shoran's "Excellent view of our prosperous age." Plays also became very popular. Happened in the first three decades of the 19th century. Coincides with the birth of

Tokugawa Nariaki

The daimyo of Mito domain. He was influential in the rise of power of daimyos during the Tempo Crisis. He was the leader of the Hitotsubashi Party, which advocated for Hitotsubashi Keiki to be named the shogun.

Morrison Incident

(1837) Ship carrying shipwrecked Japanese sailors was repulsed by the Japense. Dutch studies scholars were not happy. British wanted to use the incident to break down trade barriers. Europe not happy, Japan not happy. Ain't nobody happy.

Treaty Port System

Started by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842, these were ports opened up to trade for the British after winning the 1st Opium War. It also gave the British Hong Kong and extraterritoriality in China.

Commodore Perry

Arrived in Japan in 1854 to discuss trade treaties with Japan, after US had twice been denied in its attempts. He was to ensure protection for American seamen, gain access to Japanese ports for provisions and coal, and, if possible, seek rights for trade

Abe Masahiro

Senior Councillor, basically Prime Minister in 1840s-1850s. He denies the first requests from European powers to trade. When Perry sails into Edo bay, he asks the daimyo lords what they want to do. When Perry returned with a bigger squadron, he signed a t

Men of Spirit

(shishi). Low ranking samurai who sacrificed their lives to commit acts of violence aimed at changing imperial policy. They also really wanted to drive foreigners out of Japan.

Mito School


Yoshida Shoin


Ii Naosuke

A Japanese shogun, he was assassinated outside of Edo Castle in 1860 in the Sakuradamon Incident. He replaced Hotta Masayoshi as regent, settled dispute in favor of Hitotsubashi (now Yoshitomi) as shogun, but also approved commercial treaty. In an unprece