monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine
Uracil pairs with
Adenine pairs with
Guanine pairs with
Cytosine pairs with
Thymine pairs with
two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA
base substitution mutation
one nucleotide is substituted for another; could be harmless if same amino acid is made; usually harmful
base insertion mutation
a nucleotide is removed from the sequence or a nucleotide is added; changes entire sequence of proteins and has largest effect
formed when homologous chromosomes come together
the exchange of genetic material between two homologous chromosomes
new body cells in a multicellular organism
result of fertilization, fertilized egg
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structured, and that pair during meisosis
The cells that are produced as a result of mitosis. These cells are identical to each other, and also to the original parent cell.
single rod chromosome
detached sister chromatids
double rod chromosome
DNA attached to a duplicated stand, consists of sister chromatid
creates new cells for growth and development, replication and division of the contents of the nucleus
independent assortment of chromosomes
tetrads align randomly during metaphase
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic
having two different alleles for a trait
having two identical alleles for a trait
Trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present
trait that will only appear in the phenotype if organism inherits two of them; covered up by the dominant gene
process of combining egg and sperm to create a zygote
genetic makeup of an organism
The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
the first offspring from a cross of two varieties in the parental (P) generation
Parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
offspring of the F1 generation
a cross between organisms with two different phenotypes, produces offspring with a new phenotype (doesn't follow alternate forms, all genes have dominant and recessive alleles)
a cross between organisms with two different phenotypes that produce a third blending of the parents(doesn't follow two alternate forms, dominant and recessive allele)
multiple alleles and codominance
More than two alleles that share dominance completely
An inheritance pattern in which traits are controlled by genes located on the X chromosome.
Father of genetics. Experimented with pea plants and discovered law of dominance, ind. assortment, and segregation.
Gregor Mendel's hypotheses
1. Genes have alternate forms.
2. An allele is either dominant or recessive.
3. For each inherited trait, an orgasm has 2 alleles.
4. A gamete (egg or sperm) has only one allele for a gene.
a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family