a cell with one set of chromosomes
a cell with two sets of chromosomes; twice the haploid number
when chromosomes in a tetrad swap pieces of each other, leading to genetic diversity
a pair of chromosomes, one from each parent, that have relatively similar structures and gene values
new cells produced by cell division
part of interphase in which the cell undergoes the most growth
stage of cell cycle in which mitosis and cytokinesis occur
first & longest phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes become visible
last phase of mitosis in which the chromatids arrive at the poles, the spindle breaks down and the nuclear envelope reforms.
second stage of meiosis I in which chromosomes line up double file
second stage of mitosis II in which the chromosomes line up across the cell.
proteins that help facilitate the cell cycle
creation by the physical union of male and female gametes
this guides the DNA to the two sides of the cell during mitosis
cells produced by meiosis; another name for sex cells
stage of interphase in which the cell prepares for mitosis (m phase)
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell and attach to the mitotic spindle
process by which the cytoplasm of a cell divides; in an animal cell, it is called furrowing, in a plant cell the cell plate forms
The third phase of meiosis II. The sister chromatids are spearated at their centromeres and pulled to opposite sides of the cell. The number of chromosmes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
disease in which some of the body's cells multiply uncontrollably
set of events during which the cell grows and divides
the messy, unwound form of DNA that is found in the nucleus prior to cell division.
organelles that form the mitotic spindle
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
part of interphase in which cell DNA is replicated
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms- creates four new sex cells with a haploid amount of chromosomes
phase of mitosis in which the mitotic spindle pulls the sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell
first stage of meiosis I, where tetrads (a set of two tightly bound chromosomes) are formed and may cross over
The first phase of meiosis II. Prophase II is identical to mitotic prophase, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
The fourth and final phase of meiosis II. Telophase II is identical to mitotic telophase, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis. I.