CIS 325 Midterm

bad sector

an area of the disk that has become unusable

boot sector

the first sector of a data storage device that contains the code for bootstrapping a system


the process by which a small program actually initializes the operating system installed on a computer


the smallest logical storage unit on a hard disk

disk drive

a mechanism that reads data from a disk and writes data onto a disk

disk file system

a type of file system used for storing and recovering the files on a storage device, such as a hard disk, that is directly or indirectly connected to a computer

disk platter

a round, flat, magnetic metal or ceramic disk in a hard disk that holds the actual data


the way bytes are ordered in a system


the 32-bit version of this file system uses smaller clusters, which results in a more efficient storage capacity

floppy disk

a portable magnetic disk with a shell made of either flexible or rigid plastic material

IDE (integrated drive electronics)

a type of interface used to connect a disk drive to a computer in which the controller is built into the drive itself

lost cluster

a FAT file system error that results from how the FAT file system allocates space and chains files together

master boot record (MBR)

the first sector of a data storage device such as a hard disk

network file system

a type of file system that provides access to files on other computers on a network

NTFS (New Technology File System)

a type of file system used on Windows operating systems that provides features, such as security and file compression, that FAT does not provide

Parallel ATA (PATA)

a type of interface that offers a connection between a hard drive and a computer, in which communication can only flow in one direction at a time


the creation of logical drives on a disk

Registry Checker

a part of the Windows 98 operating system that is used to backup and restore the registry and fix errors in the registry

Registry Monitor

a program that can be used to monitor changes to the registry as they occur


the basic physical unit of hard drive data storage; a series of these, which are predefined, form a circle on the hard drive platter called a track

Serial ATA (SATA)

a type of interface that offers a point-to-point connection between a hard drive and a computer, in which communication can flow both ways at the same time

special purpose file system

a file system where the files are organized by software during runtime

USB (Universal Serial Bus)

a type of interface used to connect peripherals such as hard drives, modems, printers, scanners, and digitizers to a computer

ZFS (Zettabyte File System)

a self-managing, general-purpose file system used in Sun's Solaris 10 operating system


the next generation optical medium patented by Sony


a type of compact disc that holds data that a computer can read

compact disc (CD)

an optical disc that is used to store different kinds of data

digital versatile disc (DVD)

an optical disc that holds more data than a CD

flash memory card

a solid-state electronic flash memory data storage device


a type of optical disc that is a successor to a standard DVD and holds more data


a portable digital audio player designed and marketed by Apple Computer


a digital media player application that is typically used to interact with an iPod

magnetic tape

a recording medium that consists of a thin plastic strip with a fine magnetic coating


a portable digital audio player designed and marketed by the Microsoft Corporation

BIOS (Basic Input/output System)

the program a personal computer's microprocessor uses to get the computer system started after a user turns it on. It also manages data flow between the computer's operating system and attached devices such as the hard disk, video adapter, keyboard, mouse


the process of loading an operating system onto a computer's main memory, or random access memory (RAM). Once the operating system is loaded, the computer is ready for users to run applications

boot sequence

the steps that a computer takes after it has been powered on

CMOS (complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor)

this technology is used in the transistors that are manufactured for most of today's microchips; computers contain a small amount of this type of memory, which is battery-powered, to hold the date, time, and system setup parameters

cold boot (hard boot)

the startup of a computer from a powered-down, or off, state


the software programs or instructions stored in the read-only memory (ROM) of a hardware device that provide the necessary instructions during the boot process for the computer to find the installed operating system and continue to boot up. It is consider


the principle part of an operating system that loads first and is stored in physical memory (RAM). It is designed to be as small as possible and only contain essential instructions to maintain critical functions such as memory, process, and disk managemen

NVRAM (nonvolatile random access memory)

memory that maintains its information even when the computer is turned off, by connecting it to a battery source

warm boot (soft boot)

the process of restarting a computer that is already turned on, via the operating system. Restarting returns the computer to its initial state. This is necessary when a program encounters an error, and it is impossible to recover from it


a set of duplicate data that is stored in a temporary location to allow rapid access for computers to function more efficiently


a program that allows the operating system of a computer to communicate with a hardware device attached to the computer


data about data, or more simply, embedded electronic data not necessarily seen on the monitor or a printed document

net file

a command that displays the name of all open shared files on a system and the number of file locks, and closes individual shared files and removes file locks

net sessions

a command that shows not only the names of users accessing the system via a remote login session but also the IP addresses and the types of clients from which they are accessing the system

nonvolatile information

memory information that does not require power to remain stored, such as the swap file stored on a computer's hard drive


a logical connection that allows data to be sent from one connection to another directly. There are 65,536 of these available on a computer, with the first 1,024 being well-known (0-1023)


a section or instance of an application or program that is being run sequentially

promiscuous mode

the state of a network interface card where it will register all network traffic, rather than only that traffic arriving with the card's own MAC address as the destination


a process requiring no user interaction that runs on a computer and facilitates the functioning of the computer operating system and associated applications

swap file

a space on a hard disk (nonvolatile memory) used as the virtual memory extension of a computer's random access memory (RAM)

volatile information

memory information stored in the random access memory (RAM) of a computer that requires electricity to remain stored there

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

a service provided by a server in which the server assigns a client machine an IP address upon request


any occurrence that the operating system or program wants to keep track of or alert the user about

Extensible Markup Language (XML)

a general purpose specification for markup programming languages that allows the user to define specific elements to aid in sharing structured data among different types of computers with different operating systems and applications

password cracking

the process of taking a password hash and attempting to determine the associated password that generated that password hash