philosphy plato

Fully define Skepticism

all knowledge is impossible.

explain the meaning of "Liberal Arts

education of the time, that goes beyond.

Explain the meaning of the two Greek words that define philosophy.

Philic (Love) and Sophia (wisdom)

Fully define Irony

pretended ignorance of a skilful questioner leads the person answering to expose his own ignorance

Explain what is meant by the fallacy of an appeal to authority.

you give as a reason for accepting something for some authority accepts it.

Fully define Moral Relativism.

matter of opinion.

Define Democracy.

a vote for each citizen then majority rules

Explain whether Socrates is a moral relativist or a moral realist/objectivist.

moral realist/objectivist.

Fully define Eristic.

asking tricky questions to make person look foolish

Fully define Epistemology.

philosophy of knowledge. What is it? How do we know?

Fully define Anamnesis.

(Socrates view) all learning is recollection looking within to your soul.

Fully define Dialectic

seeking the truth through discussion and questioning/ closer to the truth.

Fully explain what characterizes sophism.

lover of wisdom
specializing in art of rhetoric
traveling teaches of high education

Define the fallacy of equivocation

false way of reasoning the changing the meaning of a word in a rational way you appear to win an argument.

Distinguish between the old and new accusers at the trail.

old accusers-bias childhood accusers
new accusers-Meletus, Anytus, Lycon logical change

Fully define Realism/Objectivism.

more optimistic about attaining moral knowledge, identifying true moral statements, and often believe in intrinsic values. believes in "moral fact

Distinguish between the premises and the conclusion of an argument.

Premises are statements that directly support the conclusion;In an argument, the conclusion is only supported by its two premises, but each premise itself can be supported in a number of ways

Explain the scholars division of Plato's dialogues into early, middle, late.

Early- (20s 30s):are taken to be accurate if not verbatim portrayals of Socrates in action; culminating the athenian government on a life in politics and resulted in his leaving Athens to travel for a number of years in the Mediterranean region.

Define Metaphysics

philosophy of reality

Fully define Empiricism.

philosophical theory that knowledge begins with sensation.

Explain what Socrates means by saying philosophy is the practice of death.

practice separating the soul from the body they put souls needs first philosophers prepare for death

Explain what Socrates means by a "form

spiritual perfect unchanging reality that exist out of your mind.

Explain why "form" is the preferred translation of "eidos.

look of something (don't think about that type of reality Socrates is thinking about or referring too.)which he identified the permanent reality that makes a thing what it is,

Give the other main translation of "eidos.

absolute equality
Justice in itself

Fully explain what Socrates means by saying the human person is imprisoned in the body? How is the human person likely to become his own imprisoner.

imprisoned in body and lives in a temporary situation you give good life then rewarded by separating soul from body
No good? punished by putting back to another body and live again (reincarnation) there is going to be some type of judgment in after life.

Explain what Socrates means by comparing true teaching to Midwifery.

**** Dialectical educator is compared to a midwife (delivery nurse)
Does not give birth
Does not give a woman the child
but coaches the mother to give birth
students has to do the focusing and learning

Define Counter Example

an example that raises difficulty for a theory

Define Fallacy of an appeal to pity.

false way of reasoning where we ask someone to believe something or do something based on pity

Define the fallacy of ad hominem

to the person
attack a person's character for a reason for rejecting their argument.

Define Rhetoric

Gain peoples confidence
art of persuasive speaking
matter who discovered it

Fully define Deontological

Ethical theory that says acting ethically is done out of duty regardless of consequences.

Fully explain the comparison Socrates makes between his situation and Achilles.

they both defy death of what is right and just. Socrates believes the "real man" must give way to the genuine human being, his care for prudence, truth and the good of the soul replaces Achilles' bloody deed of war.

Explain what Socrates does claim to know in the Apology and its significance for moral realism.

Having a duty its wrong to do what you think is evil, admits to knowing is something about morality.

Explain the main reasoning that Socrates uses to criticize democracy.

Not everyone is qualified and prepared to vote
what they really don't know they make decisions on what hey desire the most.
Example: Equivalent going to medical office and everyone have a say

Explain the meaning of the Greek word agathon


Explain the meaning of the Greek word kalon


Explain the meaning of the Greek word telos


What is Thrasymachus definition of justice?

nothing more than the advantage of the stronger.

Fully define Temperance

moral virtue about knowing reasonable contrast over physical desire

Explain what Cephalus says about the advantage of old age.

body becomes weaker desires become weaker making it easier to say no helping people make better and easier choices.

Explain the comparison between a gadfly and a horse in the Apology. Explain the point Socrates is trying to make.

flys help horses out by keeping them awake. Socrates asks questions that annoy people but keep them aware.

Why is it basically irrelevant if Socrates actually had not historical existence, in terms of philosophy's concern's?

what is relevant is the argument in the end? whats important is? what is true? it doesn't

Define Myth.

story of image that may or may not be truth but conves deeper truth human nature and education.

Fully define Rationalism and give an example of a philosopher who fits this category

way believe three things:
1 sense are deceptive
2 ideal knowledge is math and geometry
3reality can be known by the mind
plato Descerts Anselm

Define Social Contract theory.

philosophical theory that believes beginning of justice in society is result of argument based on mutual weakness and purpose of self protection

Define legal realism

view that laws are made by those who have power or reflect their own self interest

Give the basic reason why Plato thinks that we can only have doxa (opinion, probability) about physical objects.

whatever somebody says is only true at the time. its not knowledge because it is always changing. we can have the knowledge but not of the physical world.

Give the basic reason why Plato thinks that forms are more real than physical objects.

The Forms are unchanging and eternal. Physical objects are constantly changing (in flux, to use the Heraclitean term). They are transient and ephemeral.

Describe the story of the Allegory of the Cave, and then give all of the symbolism is the allegory as relates to the specifics of Plato's theory.


Explain the difference between intrinsic and instrumental goods

Intrinsic good-something worthwhile not because it leads to something else, but for its own sake alone; i.e., Good-in-itself.
instrumental good-something considered as a means to some other good; i.e., an instrumental good leads to something else that is

Explain the reasoning about the teleological argument about justice and the human soul Socrates gives.


Explain the project that Glaucon and Adeimantos want Socrates to undertake in Republic, book two.


Explain the Myth of Gyges the Lydian. What points about justice is it meant to illustrate?


Give the basic reason why Plato thinks that we can only have Doxa (opinion, probability) about physical objects.


Explain the various senses of the phrase "No one is wiser than Socrates.


Explain the main reasons why Socrates is not afraid of death in the Apology


Explain what Socrates means by comparing himself to a gadfly and the city of Athens to a horse.


Fully explain he comparison Socrates makes between his situation and Achilles.


Explain what Socrates means by comparing expertise in horsemanship to expertise in raising good children. How does this refute Meletus in the Apology?


Explain the difference between paraphrase and a quotation. explain the citation rule about paraphrases.

The difference in a direct quote and paraphrasing is the wording. A direct quote is repeating exactly what was said. Paraphrasing is repeating the gist of what was said but not using the exact words.

Explain why it doesn't mtter to philosophy if the arguments in the dialogues come from the historical Socrates or come from Plato.


what does Socrates' example of returning the weapon show is wrong with Cephalus' definition (it is just to give to each what is owed to him) of justice. Be sure to explain the example.


Explain Socrates' argument that it is wrong to harm one's enemies.

1) "Evil is what is ultimately harmful" 2) "No one wishes to harm themselves" 3) "therefore, no one does it knowingly, deliberately.

Explain how Socrates shows that Thrasymachus' definition is not consistent with other examples (doctors, pilots, ect.) of people who have techne.


Explain Thrasymachus' use of the shepherd example. How does this attempt to answer Socrates' points about how the ruler should be viewed?


Explain how Socrates uses the examples of those who have techne of music and techne of medicine are most like the qualities of the just man rather than the unjust man.


Explain what is meant by saying that Socrates is using the word "knowledge" in the Apology in a very specific sense.


Explain what Socrates doe claim to know in the Apology and its significance for moral realism.

I have a duty its wrong to do what you think is evil, admits to knowing is something about mortality.

89. explain what reductive empiricism is and whether Aristotle is a reductive empiricist.


90. Define Aristotle's theory of abstraction.


91. fully describe the five stages of Aristotle's epistemology in the Metaphysics.


92. Define essentials and accidentals.

essentials qualities that define the essence of something.
accidentals- qualities that are true of the individual but doesn't define type of thing the individual is.

93. Describe Aristotle's theory of immanent form and contrast this with Plato's theory of Transcendent Forms.

immoral forms- form is within the individual you never encounter anything in material world unless it has form of matter.
Plato thinks if we study an object there are separate forms form of justice equality physical objects reminded people of the forms.

94. Describe Plato's response to the problem of the one and the many.

three pens different but we use the same name but there is a form of pen never change in the spiritual world.

95. Describe Aristotle's response to the problem of the one and the many.

didn't know what pens were then they felt sensation then the memory of them and then mind abstracts the use of them.

96. Desrcribe Aristotle's theory of the four causes.

(Intro to Aristotle) Scientifically to explain change
Formal- kind
Material- what is is made of
Efficient-by whom or what has the change affected
Final- what purpose

97. Explain why for Aristotle the man of experience often does better in practical life than the man with craft knowledge (techne).


98. Explain why craft knowledge is not an adequate translation of techne.

because they are technes that we do not call crafts like nursing and accountant.

99.Discuss the five major criticisms of Plato's form theory that Aristotle gives, and we discussed in class.


100. Define infinite regress.

lead to go to final conclusion

101. Define "Reductio ad absurdum.

Reduce to abstract

102. Explain what Aristotle means by political science and how this differs from our stages.


103. Explain why the translation of eudaimonia as happiness is not adequate.


104. Explain what is meant by saying that virtue is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for eudaimonia.


105.Explain why virtue is still valuable even in times of catastrophe.

Catastrophe you can't have eudaimonia virtuous person makes the best out of the situation do the best possible.

106. Explain why Aristotle does not think that pleasure can be the final purpose of human life.


107. Explain why Aristotle does not think that honor can be the final purpose of human life.

it is to depend on the other people and some don't honor who they should

108. Explain what Aristotle thinks is the defining characteristic of human nature. Then explain how he thinks that this will mean that doing ethical activity is both "Kalon and agathon.


109. Explain what types of events and lacks that he thinks may rob the virtuous person of eudaimonia.


110. Explain why Aristotle thinks that acting ethically is ultimately in our best interest.

When we do whats right we are setting up condition of eudaimonia which seeks well being.

111. Define univocal and give an example of its use.

using a word in an identical way throughout an argument an example would be language.

112. Define analogical and give an example of its use.

when we use a word or phrase in a like or unlike way in argument.

113. Define equivocal and give an example of its use.

use a word or phrase in a radically different way in an argument.

114. Explain how the final cause relates to ethics.


115. Explain what is meant by saying the most important ethical training is done in the "pre-rational stage.

as children trained emotionally and character not knowing but doing.

116. Explain what Aristotle means by calling ethics a practical science. Then contrast this with that Plato would say about knowledge and ethics.

Practical Science its not simply knowing but doing it has to deal with probably it has to deal with only for most of the part.

117. Fully define Prudence/Practical Wisdom

Prudence/Practical Wisdom is phnonesis intellectual virtue of applying abstract morality to real life concrete situations

118. Explain the metaphor of the Lesbian ruler as applied to Practical Wisdom.

Island of Lesbos filled with percular rocks when architects measured these rocks it wouldn't work.
lesbian ruler-flexable metal srop objective judgment.

119. Explain the division of virtues into intellectual and moral virtues. Give examples of each.


120. Fully define incontinence.


121. Explain Aristotle's use of the term natural. Contrast this with the usual contemporary use of the term.


122. Explain why Aristotle thinks ethics will lack the precision of theoretical science, life geometry.


123. Give a detailed explanation of the six stages of moral responsibility in terms of how each state would react emotionally and intellectually to an offer of wrong-doing.

Bestial- Social Canibalism, not responsible, severally mental
Vice- state of evil habit know wrong conditionally they want to do it (bad)
incontience- do evil knowingly because of your conditions responsible
God Life

124. Explain why Aristotle thinks the virtuous person should be praised more than the continent.

Do right thing but continent struggle because he learns whats right but emotions get in way. How we become nobody is born perfect. They did precious acts.

125. Explain why Aristotle thinks the vicious person should be blamed more than the incontinent.

Repeated acts from before that they gave themselves bad habits.

126. Explain why incontinence is not a struggle with intellectual controversies in ethics.


127. Explain why the divine and bestial state are outside the main concerns of ethics.

The divine and bestial state are outside the main concerns of ethics because these two stages don't make people struggle between good or bad. Bestial can't take responsibilities for their wrong actions while the godlife are people who are perfect and do e

128. Give Aristotle's reasoning for a philosophical defense of incontinence against Socrates' reasoning about it.

Nobody doe evil knowingly somebody struggling between good and bad.

129. Explain what is meant by actualized knowledge. Explain what is meant by potentialized knowledge. Explain how Aristotle uses these to explain the possibility of akrasia.

Actualized knowledge is knowledge that we have and currently using
potentialized knowledge is knowledge that we have and are currently not using it.

130. Explain what Aristotle thinks is the basic mistake that socrates makes in his argument that no one does evil knowingly.


131. Explain what Aristotle's means by "theorin" or contemplation.

contemplation is highest virtue of thinking about the most perfect reality in universe intellectual virtue - experience thought
moral virtue -listening to emotions and thoughts

132. Explain what is misleading in the translation of "theorin" as "study.

study is to general
more contemplation is happier life but more active life little or time for contemplation

133. Explain what Aristotle's answer is to the question of whether the life devoted to contemplation or the life devoted to prudence is better in terms of eudaimonia.


134. Explain what Aristotle means by saying the virtuous statesman can enjoy a secondary type of eudaimonia, in comparison to the eudaimonia enjoyed by the virtuous philosopher.

The only person reaching eudaimonia is a virus philosopher. In active life the virtuous statement may not have any time for contemplation but can have it too virtue of Prudence instead of contemplation.

135. Explain what Thomas Aquinas means by vincible ignorance. Relate this to Aristotle's view on incontinence.

that we have that does not morally excuse our behavior incontinence puts themselves is temporary moment of ignorance so they put it out of their mind because they want to do the right thing.

135. Explain what Thomas Aquinas means by invincible ignorance. Relate this to Aristotle's view on incontinence.

does excuse from moral responsibility and that doesn't have invincible ignorance.