community corrections test 1

this theory denotes that when individuals cannot obtain success goals (such as money, status, and so forth), they will tend to experience a sense of pressure.

strain theory/institutional anomie

why is the case of United states v. Birnbaum (1970) important to community corrections?

this case determined that probation was a privilege and not a right.

the term _______ refers to a sense of cohesion within a given community where citizens have close and interlocking relationships with one another.

collective efficacy

social disorganization theory states that crime tends to be learned through imitation and differential reinforcement.


with indeterminate sentencing, the offender is released during some point in the range of years that are assigned y the sentencing judge.


classical criminology presumes that offenders do not learn from their transgressions through reinforcements or punishments


the abolition of parole in the federal system occurred due to which of the following acts

the comprehensive crime control act of 1984

which sentencing goal emphasizes physical restriction to prevent further opportunities for law breaking.


_______ are patters of values, norms, and behaviors, which have become traditional among certain groups.

subcultural theory

community corrections include ________ imposed upon an offender for ______________.

all non-incarcerating correctional sanctions/ the purpose of reintegration.

the use of __________ provides a measure to indicate the amount of time and effort that a community supervision officer will spend on a given case.

needs assessment

because the PSI information is largely obtained from the interview process, it is important that the community supervision officer have ______________.

good interviewing skills

according to the text, risk assessment instruments must be ______ and separately normed for males and females.

tested on your correctional population

the __________ is the file that includes a wide range of background information on the offender.

pre-sentence investigation report

Prognosis refers to the likelihood that an offender will successfully reform and to simultaneously refrain from further criminal activity.


the ___________ is an objective personality adjustment inventory test that can be given to large numbers of offenders at the same time or individually as desired.


The LSI-R screening version consists of 8 items selected from the full LSI-R.


According to the text, there are some concerns in regard to the true effectiveness of the Wisconsin Risk Assessment Instrument.


Sampson and Laub's self-control model suggests that people differ in their simple will to restrain from criminal behavior.


the ___________ implies that the offender is predicted to not re-offend but the prediction turns out to be false.

false negative.

What does PSI stand for?

Pre-Sentence investigation Report

In many states, such as Colorado, Louisiana, and elsewhere, community parole officers are also (POST) certified. What does POST stand for?

Peace Officer Standards and Training

the _______ style of supervision describes officers who view the offender more as a client that a supervisee on their caseload.

Welfare Worker

the reintegrative approach will help the offender desist from the criminogenic lifestyle.


in PA, what percentage of the probation/parole workforce has been victimized?


it is the parole officer that typically makes the decision to issue a warrant for parole violations which result in the offender being sent back to prison.


next to high case loads, ___________ is the most significant source of stress for many officers.


the communities are highly supportive of how the probation officers handle the misconduct of the offenders.


____________ use a great degree of both control and assistance techniques. They protect both the offender and the community by providing the offender with assistance, as well as praising and blaming.

Paternal Officer

the term "fortress probation" is described as what within the probation system.

the office.

states around the nation find themselves considering the increased use of parole and/or early release due to problems with _____________.

prison overcrowding.

Prolonging imprisonment does not increase the likelihood of recidivism.


______________ factors, such as terminal illness, likelihood of committing treatment programs, impressions during interviews, and so forth, undoubtedly come into play when making determinations to release or to incarcerate.


in some states the ________ is primarily tasked with holding preliminary parole revocation hearings while reviewing allegations make by parole officers against parolees.

parole revocations officer

______ work specifically applies to the reintegration of paroled offenders and explains that though reconnection with the community is the primary end-goal, there is a shaming element that is both proper and necessary.


Bazemore and O'Brian (2002) note that there is now significant evidence that restorative practices can have a significant impact of recidivism.


in 2001, the _______ Board of Correction and Community Punishment implemented an accelerated parole scheme to release over 500 inmates, citing the need to free prison and jail space.


_______________ is the type of administration that is independent of any other state agency and report directly and only to the governor of the state.

Independent Parole Administration Model

___________ are those services provided to offenders transitioning to the community with the aid of a team of support individuals that may include the offender's family, clergy, social service workers, probation and/or parole officers and so forth.

Wrap around services

The _______ measures offenders risk along six items, with of these six items being measured with a value that ranges from 0 (zero) to 3 inverted indications of risk (meaning that the lower the number the higher the likelihood that the offender will recidi

Salient Factor Score