maturation is also a qualitative change, is associated with the process of aging.
What are the three processes of change in development?
Growth, differentiation, and maturation.
differentiation is the process by which initially formed cells and structures become specialized.
what are the five major categories of development?
Physical, social and emotional, cognitive, communication and adaptive
Development refers to the sequence of physical, psychosocial, and cognitive developmental changes that take place over the human lifespan.
What does social and emotional development pertain to?
personality, emotion, and behavior
growth is a quantitative change in which an increase in cell number and size results in an increase in overall size or weight of the body or any of its parts.
The three components to speech are what?
articulation, which refers to the pronunciation of sounds; voice, which refers to the production of sound by the vocal cords; and fluency, which refers to the rhythm of speech.
The cognitive dimension relates to what?
sensory reception, processing, and use of information about the environment and objects in the environment, as well as understanding the relationships between self and this information.
Communication development fact
language is a set of rules shared by a group of people that allows the communication of thoughts, ideas, and emotions. Receptive language function is the ability to understand what others say. Expressive language function is the ability to express complet
Physical development refers to what?
to the growth and changes in body tissues and organ systems and the resultant changes in body proportions.
Freud believed that at different ages, particular areas of the body provide the chief source of sensual pleasure and that experiences with these pleasure centers significantly impacts the development of personality. What are the three components of the pe
id, ego and superego
Describe the superego
the superego is the conscience, the internalization of moral standards.
id is inborn and the most primitive. It is unconscious, instinct driven, and concerned with instant gratification.
adaptive development refers to what?
to the acquisition of a range of skills that enable independence at home and in the community.
Adaptive skills are learned and include self-care activities such as what?
dressing, undressing. eating, feeding. toiling and grooming; management of one's immediate environment; and functional behaviors within the community such as crossing the street safely, going to the store, and following rules of politeness when interactin
describe the ego
the ego is the conscious mind driven by the reality principle. The ego finds rational and acceptable ways to satisfy basic instincts. It blocks the irrational impulses of the id and uses a variety of defense mechanisms to protect against excessive anxiety
Erikson's theory fact
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development covers the entire lifespan. Erikson's theory identifies eight stages of life between birth and death. Each stage has a particular identified task in the form of a conflict that must be resolved.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development fact
Piaget's theory of cognitive development seeks to explain how children organize their world and learn to think. The theory identifies four general periods; each is comprised of a number of stages that are age related and sequential.
The most commonly used measure of developmental status used by health care professionals is the what?
Denver 2 test.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development fact
Kohlberg's theory expands on Piaget's cognitive theory to address the development of moral reasoning across the lifespan.
HEADSS is a screening tool that assesses what in adolescents?
Home, education, activities, drugs, sex and suicide for the purpose of identifying high-risk adolescents and the need for anticipatory guidance.
who is the Denver 2 test designed for, and what does it assess?
use with children from 1 month to 6 years of age and has been standardized for minority populations. It assesses gross motor, fine motor adaptive, language and personal social skills. The two limitations in the use of the Denver 2 are that it may result i
Define developmental delay
A problem associated with failure to meet the expected developmental level is referred to as a developmental delay.