The goal for pre-prandial blood glucose for those with Type 1 diabetes mellitus is?


You are doing some teaching with a client who is starting on a sulfonylurea antidiabetic agent. The client mentions that he usually has a couple of beers each night and takes an aspirin each day to prevent heart attack and/or strokes. Which of the followi

D. Taking alcohol and/or aspirin with a sulfonylurea drug can cause development of hypoglycemia Alcohol and/or aspirin taken with a sulfonylurea can cause development of hypoglycemia.
Alcohol and/or aspirin taken with a sulfonylurea can cause developmen

The guidelines for carbohydrate counting as medical nutrition therapy for diabetes mellitus includes all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Flexibility in types and amounts of foods consumed
b. Unlimited intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol
c. Incl

b. Unlimited intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol

When taking a health history, the nurse screens for manifestations suggestive of diabetes type I. Which of the following manifestations are considered the primary manifestations of diabetes type I and would be most suggestive of diabetes type I and requir

D. An increase in three areas: thirst, intake of fluids, and hunger
The primary manifestations of diabetes type I are polyuria (increased urine output), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger).

The nurse is working with an overweight client who has a high-stress job and smokes. This client has just received a diagnosis of Type II Diabetes and has just been started on an oral hypoglycemic agent. Which of the following goals for the client which i

C. Lose a pound a week until weight is in normal range for height and exercise 30 minutes daily
When type II diabetics lose weight through diet and exercise they sometimes have an improvement in insulin efficiency sufficient to the degree they no longer r

When working in the community, the nurse will recommend routine screening for diabetes when the person has one or more of seven risk criteria. Which of the following persons that the nurse comes in contact with most needs to be screened for diabetes based

d. A client with an HDL cholesterol level of 40 mg/dl and a triglyceride level of 300 mg/dl
The seven risk criteria include: greater than 120% of standard body weight, Certain races but not including Caucasian, delivery of a baby weighing more than 9 poun

Hyperinsulinemia may be caused by all of the following except:
a. An insulinoma
b. Nesidioblastosis
c. Insulin resistance
d. Type 1 diabetes

D: Hyperinsulinemia indicates a difficulty in blood sugar regulation; the pancreas is working to produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar. Hyperinsulinemia may be cause by a tumor of insulin-producing cells (an insulinoma), excessive numbers of insu

What are three acute complications of diabetes?

Hypoglycemia, Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome (HHS)

What are some long term complications of diabetes?


What are some macrovascular complications?

Disease of large and medium blood vessels; MI; CVA

What are some microvascular complications?

Disease of capillaries and arterioles, retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, dermopathy

How can you decrease risks of angiopathy?

End organ damage secondary to damage to the blood vessels

Macrovascular incidents occur is men or women more?

Women are 4-6x more likely to have and MI CAD men 2-3x

Untreated diabetes may result in all of the following except:
a. Blindness
b. Cardiovascular disease
c. Kidney disease
d. Tinnitus

D: Untreated diabetes also may result in loss of lower limbs to amputation and death

Hot and Dry?

Sugar High

Cold and Clammy?

Need some Candy

What is hypoglycemia?

Abnormally low blood glucose, <70mg/dl

What causes hypoglycemia?

Too much insulin, too little food, too much exercise.

When does hypoglycemia occur?

Can occur anytime, often before meals (insulin peak), often when snacks are missed or meals are delayed.

What are s/s of hypoglycemia?

Sweating, trembling, dizziness, mood changes, hunger, headaches, blurred vision, extreme tiredness and pallor

What are the s/s of hyperglycemia?

Dry mouth, extreme thirst, frequent urge to urinate, frequent bed wetting, drowsiness, stomach pain

What are the clinical manifestations of mild hypoglycemia?

Sweating, Palpitations, tremors, tachycardia, nervousness

What are clinical manifestations of moderate hypoglycemia?

Inability to concentrate, HA, lightheadedness, numbness/tingling of mouth and lips, slurred speech.

What are clinical manifestations of severe hypoglycemia?

Disorientation, seizures, not rousable from sleep, loss of consciousness