Period 5 - AP World History

What made fossil fuel exploitation possible? What types of fossil fuels were most commonly used between 1750 and 1900?

Development of machines (steam and internal combustion engines); coal and oil

The "____________________" revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies.

fossil fuels

What are 2 important changes that occurred as a result of the development of the factory system?

1. Concentrated labor into a single location2. Led to increased degree of specialization of labor

Where did the new methods of production spread from? Where did they spread to?

Spread from Northwest Europe to other parts of Europe, the United States, Russia, and Japan.

When was the "second industrial revolution"? What methods of production did it involve?

Second half of the nineteenth century; new methods of production in steel, chemicals, electricity, and precision machiery

What led to new patterns of global trade further integration of the global economy between 1750 and 1900?

Industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount and array of goods produced in their factories.

What needs led to the growth of export economies that specialized in "single natural resources"? Examples? What were the profits used for?

Need of raw materials and greater food supply; profits used to purchase finished goods. Ex. cotton, palm oil, sugar, wheat, meat, guano, metals, and minerals

What led to the decline of agriculturally based economies between 1750 and 1900? Example?

Rapid increase of productivity caused by industrial production; Ex. textile production in India

The rapid development of industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new _____________________ for their finished goods. Provide some examples:

consumer markets"; Ex. British and French attempts to "open" the Chinese economy

What led to the development of extensive mining centers between 1750 and 1900? Examples?

Metals and global demand for gold, silver, and diamonds; Ex. copper mines in Mexico and gold/diamond mines in South Africa

Who provided the ideological inspiration for economic changes between 1750 and 1900?

Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill

What "financial instruments" came into extensive use between 1750 and 1900?

Stock markets, insurance, gold standard, and limited liability corporations

What major transportation and communication developments occurred between 1750 and 1900?

Railroads, steamships, telegraphs, and canals

What gains did newly developed workers' organization hope to achieve?

Better working conditions, limited hours, and gain increased wages

Why did some workers promote alternative visions of society? Examples?

Opposed capitalist exploitation of workers; Ex. Utopian socialism, Marxism, and anarchism

What imperial governments from the era 1750-1900 resisted economic change and attempt to maintain pre-industrial forms of economic production?

Qing China and Ottoman Empires

What are some examples of state-sponsored visions of industrialization?

Economic reforms in Meiji Japan, development of factories and railroads in Tsarist Russia, China's Self-Strengthening movement, and Muhammad Ali's development of a cotton textile industry in Egypt

What are some examples of reforms that some regions instituted in response to criticism of global capitalism?

State pensions and public health in Germany, expansion of suffrage in Britain and public education

What new classes developed between 1750 and 1900?

Middle class and industrial working class

What changes occurred in family life and gender roles between 1750 and 1900?

Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographics changed

What changes occurred as a result of rapid urbanization between 1750 and 1900?

Unsanitary conditions and new forms of community

Which states' existing colonies were strengthened between 1750 and 1900?

British in India and the Dutch in Indonesia

Which states established new empires throughout Asia and the Pacific between 1750 and 1900?

British, Dutch, French, Germans, Russians, Americans, and Japanese

Which states' influence declined between 1750 and 1900?

Spain and Portugal

Which states established settler colonies between 1750 and 1900? Where?

Britain - South Africa, Australia, and New ZealandFrance - Algeria

What economic practice did many powerful states employ outside of their established empire between 1750 and 1900? Examples?

Economic imperialism; Ex. British and French in China with the Opium Wars, or British and U.S. heavy investment in Latin America

What influenced the emergence of Meiji Japan?

Expansion of U.S. and European influence over Tokugawa Japan

Who emulated European transoceanic imperialism between 1750 and 1900?

The United States and Russia

How was the Ottoman Empire affected by anti-imperial resistance? Examples?

Led to the contraction of the Ottoman Empire; Ex. establishment of independent states in the Balkans, semi-independence in Egypt, French & Italian colonies in North Africa, and British influence in Egypt

What are some examples of states that developed at the edges of existing empires between 1750 and 1900?

Cherokee nation, Siam, Hawai'i, and the Zulu Kingdom

What new ideology helped to foster new communal identities between 1750 and 1900? Examples?

Nationalism; Ex. German nation, Filipino nationalism, and Liberian nationalism

How was imperialism often justified?

New racial ideologies; Ex. Social Darwinism

What are the defining characteristics "enlightenment thought" and role did it play in politics between 1750 and 1900?

Questioned established traditions in all areas of life; preceded revolutions and rebellions against government

List some examples of "thinkers" (intellectuals) from the enlightenment era. What did they encourage? What did they critique? What did their political ideas focus on?

Voltaire & Rosseau; encouraged observation and inference; critiqued role religion played in public life; political ideas focused on individual, natural rights, and the social contract

List 3 important examples of revolutionary documents from the enlightenment era:

1. American Declaration of Independence2. French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen3. Bolivar's Jamaica Letter

What major social and political shifts did Enlightenment thinking inspire between 1750 and 1900?

expansion of rights, abolition of slavery, and the end of serfdom

Between 1750 and 1900, newly imagined national communities were built around a sense of commonality typically based on what four things?

1. language2. religion3. social customs4. territory

What centralized imperial governments witnessed rebellions/revolutions between 1750 and 1900?

Wahhabi rebellion against OttomansChallange of Marathas to Mughal sultans

American colonial rebellions facilitated the emergence of independent states in what regions?

U.S., Haiti, and mainland Latin America

What are the 4 major independence movements that occurred between 1750 and 1900?

1. American Revolution2. French Revolution3. Haitian Revolution4. Latin American independence movements

What areas witnessed significant slave resistance between 1750 and 1900?

Brazil, Cuba, and the Guyanas

Name two anticolonial movements that occurred in Asia between 1750 and 1900? What inspired these movements?

Indian Revolt and Boxer Rebellion; questions about political authority and growing nationalism

Name several important rebellions between 1750-1900 that were based on religious beliefs/millenarianism.

Taiping Rebellion, The Ghost Dance, and the Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement

What are some examples of imperial reforms that were implemented in response increasing rebellions between 1750 and 1900?

Tanzimat Movement and the Self-Strengthening Movement

What new political ideologies were inspired by the rebellions of 1750-1900?

liberalism, socialism, and communism

What are some examples of the challenges to gender hierarchies between 1750 and 1900?

demands for women's suffrage and an emergent feminism

What influenced migration between 1750 and 1900?

changes in demography that presented challenges to existing living patterns

What contributed to global rise in population between 1750 and 1900?

Changes in food production and improving medical conditions

What influenced the significant global urbanization of the 19th century?

The nature of new modes of transportation

What sorts of individuals chose to relocate in search of work between 1750 and 1900?

manual laborers and specialized professionals

What types of labor did the global capitalist community continue to rely on between 1750 and 1900? List some examples.

coerced and semi-coerced labor migration; Ex. slavery, Chinese and Indian indentured servitude, and convict labor

Provide some example of temporary and seasonal migrants who returned to their home societies rather than permanently relocating.

Japanese agricultural workers in the Pacific, Lebanese merchants in the Americas, and Italians in Argentina

Why did migrant workers of the 19th century tend to be male? How did this change women's roles in the home societies?

due to the physical nature of the labor in demand; left women to take on roles in the home society that were previously occupied by men

What are some examples of ethnic enclaves created by migrants in different parts of the world?

Chinese in SE Asia, the Caribbean, and the Americas; Indians in E & S Africa, the Caribbean, and SE Asia

What role did ethnic enclaves play in migrants' lives?

transplanted culture and facilitated the development of migrant support networks

What are some of the ways in which receiving societies reacted to immigrants?

1. ethnic and racial prejudice2. regulation of the increasing flow of people across their borders