Chapter 11

What is the endocrine system?

The organs are widely dispersed in the body and all organs in the system are glands and produce hormones.

What are nonsteroid hormones?

Hormones carried through the blood to the target organ cell; requiring a second messenger.

What are steroid hormones?

It is a receptor in the nucleus of the target organ cell.

What are prostaglandins?

Called tissue hormones, they function like nonsteroid hormones because they cause the production of cyclic AMP and travel a much shorter distance than most hormones.

What is acromegaly caused by?

Too much growth hormone in the anterior pituitary gland.

What is dwarfism caused by?

Hyposecretion of growth hormones during growth years.

What does the hypothalamus produce?

ADH and oxytocin

How many target cells does THYROXINE have related to ADH?

CCCCC. it has more target cells than ADH

What does calcitonin prevent?


What can inadequate iodine in the diet cause?


What job does the parathyroid hormone have?

Increases the amount of calcium in the blood.

What does the adrenal medulla do?

It responds to stimuli from the sympathetic nervous system, helps produce the fight or flight response, and releases epinephrine.

What are the symptoms of Cushing Syndrome?

Buffalo Hump, Moon Face, and elevated blood sugar levels.

What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes result from hyposecretion of insulin and Type 2 diabetes result from target cell insensitivity to insulin.

What do glucagon and insulin do?

Glucagon increase the blood glucose level by accelerating glycogenolysis in the liver and Insulin decrease the blood glucose by accelerating the movement of glucose out of the blood into the cells.

What cells secrete insulin?

Beta Cells

Where is the thymus gland located?

In the mediastinum.

What composes the thymus gland?

The cortex and medulla.

What does the thymus gland produce?


What does the thymus gland work with?

The immune system.

Where is the pineal gland located?

Near the roof of the third ventricle of the brain.

What does the pineal gland produce?


What does the pineal gland help regulate?

The onset of puberty and menstrual cycle in women.

How many endocrine glands is the pituitary gland composed of?


What is the posterior and anterior portion called?

Adenohypophysis and Neurohypophysis.

Where is the pituitary gland located?

Cranial Cavity; Sphenoid bone called the Sella Turcica

What are tropic hormones?

They stimulate secretion of thyroid hormones and the adversal cortex.

What do ovaries secrete and where?

Estrogen and Progesterone; breasts and external genitals.

How do the endocrine and nervous system compare?

They both perform the same general functions, communication and control

A target cell has a receptor for

a particular hormone. (T)

Why do nonsteriod hormones need a second messenger?

They are unable to pass through the cell membrane. (T)

Is part of the pituitary a gland?

Yes (T)

Are FSH and LH produced by men? Why or why not?

No, they are produced in women; in ovaries and ovarian follicles.

What is oxytocin regulated by?

Postivie Feedback Mechanism. (T)

What hormones are involved in milk productions?


What is diabetes inspidius?

A disease caused by hyposecretion of antidiuretic hormone.

What is the difference between Graves disease and myxedema?

Hyperthyroidism with expothalamus and deficient thyroid hormone secretion

What hormones does the ovary secrete?

Estrogen and Progesterone.

Nerve impulses and hormones are similar how?

Hormones perform general functions of communication and control, but a slower, longer-lasting type of control than that provided by nerve impulses.

Where is oxytocin produced?

Posterior Pituitary Gland.

What is oxytocin regulated by? What does it stimulate?

Positive Feedback Loop and Milk Letdown