The belief in one God.


and Arabic word for God


the charitable practice of the donation of time, money, or other resources. Together with prayer and fasting fosters interior penance.

sacramental economy

the sacraments in which every catholic participates


From the Latin for "cross", this refers specifically to a series of eight defensive military expeditions between 1096 and 1270 undertaken by Christians to liberate the Holy Land from Muslims and to stop the expansion of Islam


in relationship through shared responsibilities and interests; union of purpose among members of a group or groups

Five Pillars of Islam

A detailed set of practices and regulations governs every aspect of life for practicing Muslims. The Five Pillars of Islam are the center of that. They are the basis of the Muslim spiritual life


a believer in or adherent of Islam; also Moslem

Koran (Qu'ran)

The holy book of Islam. IT contains the visions of Muhammad, which were written down by his followers. Muslims consider the Koran to be completely inerrant and to literally contain the words of God.


the Arab prophet of Islam, born 570-632 AD


Once during a lifetime, every Muslim must make a pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca


All Muslims who have reached puberty are required to fast during the daylight hours of the month of Ramadan, which commemorates the time during which Muslims believe the Koran was given to Muhammad


The ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar, a period during which Muslims fast, in accordance with the third of the Five pillars


The community of all Muslims


The confession of faith, the first of the Five Pillars and central creedal statement of Islam: "There is no god except God. Muhammad is the messenger of God


The divine law, derived from the Qur'an and the Sunna, encompassing all and setting forth in detail how Muslims are to live


extinction" - the extinction of one's sense of separate existence before achieving union with Allah; the aim of Sufi mystics


The emigration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib (thereafter called Medina) in AD 622; the founding event of the Muslim community


The leader of the Friday worship service who directs the prayers and delivers a sermon


the teachings and actions of Muhammad recorded in writings known as hadith, which provide the model for being Muslim; Islam's second most important authority after the Qur'an


the military and political leaders of the Muslim community who succeeded Muhammad after his death


The Muslim place or building of worship, traditionally including a prayer hall and courtyard, with towers called minarets in the corners


The stone cubical structure in the courtyard of the Great Mosque of Mecca, believed to have been built by Abraham and regarded by Muslims as the sacred center of the Earth


A teacher and master in Islam, such as the leader of an order in Sufism


Arabic for "exertion" or "struggle" - sometimes counted as the sixth pillar of Islam, the general spiritual struggle to be a devout Muslim. In a more narrow sense, it refers to armed struggle (holy war) for the sake of Islam


The fifth of the Five Pillars; the journey to Mecca that all Muslims are to make at least once in their lifetime, if they can afford it and are physically able

Meaning of the term Muslim

One who submits" - all Muslims are required to submit to Allah

The Night of Power and Excellence

the vision of the angel Gabriel of God; Muhammad told to recite; beginning of the Qur'an

The seal of the prophets

The idea that Muhammad is the last of the prophets sent by Allah that can communicate directly with him.

Muslim concept of the natural world

Muslims believe that the natural world, being the creation of Allah, is good and worthy of reverence. They view the world as another form of revelation of God's will; so, it is sometimes referred as the cosmic Qur'an. Muslims celebrate science as a way of

Tradition of prayer requirements

All Muslims, women and men, are required to pray five times each day: early morning, noon, midafternoon, sunset, and evening. Prayer requires ritual washing of the hands and face, protrastion in the direction of Mecca, and other ritual movements. Prayers

Fasting requirements

takes place during Ramadan during the ninth month of the Muslim year. Each day throughout the month, Muslims abstain from eating, drinking, smoking, and sex during the daylight hours. Some are exempt from this for health reasons. Fasting is believed to be

Sharing wealth requirements

Muslims to contribute 2.5% of the value of their possessions to a public treasury annually. Poor people are exempt from this requirement and receive some of the shared wealth. The treasury is also spent on public concerns.

Care of the body ideals

The body ultimately belongs to God, keep body clean, clothing is not seductive or luxurious, perfume is loved, diet is regulated: no pork or alcohol; sex only in marriage, get married early; no dating

Location of Muslims today

Currently, the nations with the greatest concentration of Muslims are in the northern half of Africa, all of the Middle East and southwestern Asia (including Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan), South Asia, and the islands of Malaysia and Indonesia

The special status of Arabia

Arabic involvement in Islam goes back to the earliest history of Islam, Arabia is the location of Muslim sacred sites, and Arabic is the language of Islam

Distinctions of Shi'ism

View Husayan as a hero, originated from historical circumstances and can be distinguished by geography, also by the figure of the Imam, belief in the return of Muhammad al-Mahdi


An Islamic mystical tradition that desired a personal union with God--divine love through intuition rather than through rational deduction and study of the shari'a. Followed an ascetic routine (denial of physical desire to gain a spiritual goal), dedicati

The Nation of Islam

Established in the 1930's with the idea that a race of scientists created a race of devils (white people). It equated whiteness with evil and blackness with good. The religion is loosely based on Islam but is not the same. Malcolm X becomes a spokesman fo

The Five Pillars of Islam

Faith (Oath of Faith), Prayer (Pray 5 times a day), Almsgiving (Portion of pay to the poor), Fasting (during Ramadan), and Pilgrimage (to Mecca, if able bodied).

Muslim concept of sin

sin = forgetfulness of our own goodness; passion leads us to sin

Importance of Islam

fastest growing religion and 2nd largest in the world