Kines Chapter 3

Name the major spinal ligament that limits spinal flexion

posterior longitudinal ligament

name the type of joint formed between the bodies of the vertebra


provide the name and the type of joint formed between the vertebral arches of the vertebra

facet joints

provide the name and the number of vertebrae located in the regions of the low back and upper back

lumbar (5) - low back
thoracic (12) - upper back

an inner gel-like portion of the intervertebral disc

nucleus ppulposus

outer fibers portion of the intervertebral disc

annulus fibrosus

list the six landmarks of the plum line when viewed from the side starting from the top and proceeding downwards

1. earlobe
2. middle of tip of shoulder
3. middle of thorax
4. greater trochanter of femur
5. just in front of middle of knee
6. just in front of ankle

name the anterior muscle of the spine that produces increased lumbar extension and hip flexion


name the abdominal muscle that does not produce spinal flexion

transverse abdominis

name the lateral muscle of the spine that performs only one action (spinal lateral flexion)

quadratus lumborum

name the three theories used to describe how abdominal contraction function for spinal protection

1. intra-abdominal pressure
2. shear reduction theory
3. thoracolumbar fascia tensioning theory

name the five considerations in partnering technique that can be used to reduce the stress the spine when the choreography allows

1. emphasize lifting with legs, trunk more vertical
2. cocontraction of abdominal muscles with spinal extensors for core stability
3. have partner close to you
4. directly face partner during lift
5. supplemental strength training

name the three ways dancers can prevent back injuries

1. correct trunk stabilization and alignment
2. sound partnering technique
3. development of adequate trunk strength, flexibility, and stabilization skills

name the structure that is responsible for the hump often seen with scoliosis during the folding front test

the rib hump from rotation of rib cage

name the spinal flexor muscle that runs vertically in the central region of the abdomen

rectus abdominis

name the specialized vertebral joint formed between the first and second cervical vertebra


name the specialized vertebral joint that is responsible for the "yes" movement of the head


name the muscle group that is the most superficial of the spinal extensors and has a large force production

erector spinae

match the following muscles with their actions at the spine

rectus abdominis: flexion, lateral flexion (same)
erector spinae: spinal extension, spinal lateral flexion (same), spinal rotation (same)
internal obliques: spinal flexion, spinal lateral flexion (same), spinal rotation (same)

posture with exercises

cervical lordosis - neck press, diagonal neck stretch
kyphosis - double-shoulder rotation with upper back arch, upper back drape
lumbar lordosis - curl-up with rotation, low lunge stretch, kneeling knees to chest

Fatigue posture is associated with having the ______ anterior to the plum line.


Disc herniation is commonly associated with symptoms of ______ low back pain and radiating pain that is turned to ______.

central, sciatica

________ is a back condition that involves a small fracture in the vertebra without any sliding forward of that vertebra below.


An exaggeration of the thoracic curve is _____.


Flat back posture is associated with ______ lumbar curvature.


A neutral pelvis is having the ______ in the same vertical plane as the pubic symphysis.


_____ is a cord with the weight that provides an absolute vertical line.

Plum line

Sustained forward flexion of the spine is associated with increased stress to passive constraints including _____.


A known cause of having back pain is tight _____.


There are _____ curvatures in the adult spine.


The human head weighs ____ pounds.


From the anatomical position, list the plane in which each of the following movement occurs:
spinal lateral flexion
spinal rotation
spinal extension

spinal lateral flexion - frontal
spinal rotation - horizontal
spinal extension - sagittal

From the anatomical position, list the plane in which postural deviation occurs:
lumbar lordosis
fatigue posture

lumbar lordosis - sagittal
fatigue posture - sagittal
scoliosis - frontal