Ch 4: Tissue

Types of Tissue

Connective, Muscular, Nervous, Epithelical


Connect and Support, specialized cells, ground substance and protein fiber are three components

Fibrous Connective Tissue

Loose Fibrous Connective Tissue, Dense Fibrous, Adipose Connective

Loose Fibrous

a.k.a Areolar tissue, supports epithelium and many internal organs, forms protective covering enclosing organs. Located with the lungs arteries and urinary bladder(allows them to expand) also with muscles, blood vessels and nerves

Dense Fibrous

contains many collagen fibers packed closely together; very specific functions. Located in tendons(connecting muscles to bones) and Ligaments(connecting bones to other bones)


expands and stores fat. Uses this stored fat for energy, insulation, and organ protection. beneath skin, around kidneys, and surface of heart

Supportive Connective Tissue

known as cartilage. lacks direct blood flow therefore heals slowly.

Types of Cartilage

Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrocartilage


most common, contains only very fine collagen fibers, matrix has a glassy, translucent appearance, located in nose, end of long bones, ribs, rings in the wall of the repiratory passages. Fetal skeleton is made of this and later through development becomes


more elastic fiber that hyaline, making it more flexible, located on the outter ear


contains matrix with strong collagen fiber, Found in structures that withstand tension and pressure( disks between vertebrae and knee joints)

Connective Tissue Bone

the most rigid of the connective tissue. Extremely hard matrix of inorganic salts, notably calcium salts, deposited around collagen fibers, two types Compact and Spongy

Compact Bone

make up the shaft of a long bone


open bony latticework with numerous bony bars and plates separated by irregular spaces. end of long bones

Fluid Connective Tissues

Blood and Lymph


transports nutrients and oxygen to tissue fluid, assits in distributing heat, maintaining ion and pH balance, fight infections 3 different elements

Red Blood Cells

erythrocytes- small biconcave, disk shaped cells without nuclei, transports oxygen

White Blood Cells

leukocytes- larger, contain nucleus, appears translucent, fights infections by either methods of phagocytic or produce antigens


not complete cells; fragments of giant cells present only in the bone marrow

Platelets, White and Red Blood Cells

three elements in blood


clear, watery sometimes faintly yellowish fluid derived from tissue fluid that contains white blood cells

Lymph nodes

composed of fibrous connective tissue-lymph fluid is cleansed as it passes through these nodes

Muscular Tissue

composed of cells called muscle fibers- contain protein filaments. Interaction of actin and myosin creates movement

Skeletal, Smooth and Cardiac

Types of Muscular tissue

Skeletal Muscle

aka voluntary muscle, attaches tendons to bone of the skeleton; fibers are cylindrical and long. contraction on this muscle is voluntary and it occurs faster than in any other muscle type. Long cylinder fibers.

Smooth Muscle

aka visceral. these are shaped cell lack striations, have single nucleus, and form layers in which the thick middle portion of one cell is opposite the thin ends of adjacent cells. Involuntary control: found in the walls of viscera. found in blood vessels

Cardiac Muscle

found only in the walls of the heart. Contractions pumps blood- accounts for the heart beat. contains both smooth and skeletal muscle

Nervous Tissue

consists of nerve cells called neurons and neurolglia, the cells that support and nourish the neurons


specialized cells that has three parts. Located outside the brain and spinal cord

Dendrite, Cell Body and Axon

Three parts of a neuron


supports and nourishes neurons, no long extension like neurons

Epithelial Tissue

Tighly packed cells that form a continuous layer. covers surface and line body cavities. protects and can carry out secretion, absorption, excretion and filtration

Simple, Pseudostratified columnar, transitional, stratified,

Types of Epithellium

Simple Epithelial Tissue

only one layer of cells and are classified according to cell type

Squamous, Cubodial, Columnar

Types of Epithelium Shapes

Pseudostratified Epithelial Tissue

appears layer but there are none, irregular placement of nuclei, lines the trachea

Transitional Epithelial Tissue

changes in response to tension, forms lining of the urinary bladder, ureter, all organs that may need to stretch

Stratified Epithelial Tissue

layers of cells piled on on top of the other, lining of nose, esophagus, anal canal and vagina. Protection


secretes a products, a gland can be a single epithelial cell or many,


two or more tissue type working toward a particular function

organ system

is a combination of organs that work together to carry out a particular function

9 systems of the body

Nervous, Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Digestive, Muscular, Endocrine, Urinary, Lymphatic, integumentary,