chapter 13 perceptual organization


an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes


the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

depth perception

the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance.

visual cliff

a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.

binocular cues

depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes

retinal disparity

a binocular cue for perceiving depth: By comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance�the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 246)

monocular cues

depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone

perceptual constancy

perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change

color constancy

perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object