Under the executive branch of the new constitution, Thomas Jefferson was the Secretary of State. When Alexander Hamilton wanted to create a new national bank, Jefferson adamantly spoke against it. He felt it would violate states rights by causing a huge competitor for the state banks, then causing a federal monopoly. Jefferson's argument was that since the Constitution did not say Congress could create a bank they should not be given that power. This is the philosophy of strict construction. Thomas Jefferson's beliefs led to the creation of the political party, Democratic Republicans. They believed in an extremely weak central government, no special privileges for special classes, especially manufacturers, and did not believe in letting every white male the ability to vote, only those intelligent enough to make wise decisions.
Great political leader; youngest and brightest of Federalists; "father of the National Debt"; from New York; became a major general; military genius; Secretary of Treasury; lived from 1755-1804; became Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington in 1789; established plan for economy that went in to affect in 1790 including a tariff that passed in 1789, the assupmtion of state debts which went into affect in 1790, an excise on different products (including whiskey) in 1791, and a plan for a national bank which was approved in 1791; plan to take care of the national debt--a. fund debt at face value, b. assumption of state debts, c. creation of National Bank, D. taxes (tariffs and excises)--plan was a success in dealing with the national debt; founded the Federalist Party.
was the first secretary of war; came to power in 1789; was the first to be entrusted with the infant army and navy
Chief Justice of the United States; in 1794 George Washington sent him to negotiate a treaty with England; The Jay Treaty was a failure because it didn't mention British impressment and America had to pay Pre-Revolutionary debts. It did prevent a war with England and helped in the signing of the Pinckney Treaty with Spain.
Funding at Par
an economic plan plan devised in 1790 by Hamilton in order to "bolster the nation's credit" and strengthen the central govrenment. It was a plan to exchange old bonds for new bonds at face value. This would take on the dents of all the states and reinforce faith in the government bonds. (168)
Jefferson and his states' right disciples believed the Constitution should be interpreted "literally" or "strictly". The reason why was to protect individual rights. Jefferson did not want the Bank of the United States,Hamilton thought it would not only be proper, but also necessary. Jefferson thought it was up to the states and Hamilton thought it was up to Congress. The Bank was created by Congress in 1791. Having a strong central government made people fear that theeir rights would be taken away from them.
Part of Hamilton's economic theory. Stated that the federal government would assume all the states' debts for the American Revolution. This angered states such as Virginia who had already paid off their debts.
Implied powers refers to the powers of the government found in the constitution in unwritten forms. Although some situations, such as the creation of the National Bank, are not specifically referred to in the constitution through the elastic clause they are not illegal or unconstitutional. After Hamilton was appointed head of treasury in 1789, debates began between his interpretation of the constitution and Jefferson's views. Eventually this became an issue contributing to the formation of political parties.
Means having to do with agriculture. The agrarian society were the farmers and plantation owners of the south. This was the society that jefferson wanted to see become the future of America. He appreicated the many virtous and benefical characteristics.
a tax on the manufacturing of an item. Helped Hamilton to achieve his theory on a strong central government, supported by the wealthy manufacturers.This tax mainly targeted poor Western front corn farmers (Whiskey). This was used to demonstrate the power of the Federal Government, and sparked the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.
A body of executive department heads that serve as the chief advisors to the President. Formed during the first years of Washington's Presidency, the original members of the cabinet included the Sec. of State, of the Tres. and of War. The cabinet is extremly important to the presidency, because these people influence the most powerful man in the nation.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the Constitution, the bill of rights was added in 1791 when it was addopted by the necessary number of states. It garuntees such civil liberties as freedom of speech, free press, and freedom of religon. Written by James Madison.
A small rebellion, that began in Southwestern Pennsylvania in 1794 that was a challenge to the National Governments unjust use of an excise tax on an "economic medium of exchange". Washington crushed the rebellion with excessive force, proving the strength of the national governments power in its military, but was condemned for using a "sledge hammer to crush a gnat.
The amendment states that the enumeration in the constitution shall not be construed to deny or desparage others retained by the people. It was written by James Madison in 1791 to stop the possibilty that enumerating such rights might possibly lead to the assumption that the rights were the only ones protected.
The Tenth Amendment is the last Amendment in the Bill of Rights which was created to protect American citizens natural rights. The Tenth Amendment states that the "powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the states and the people." This allows for a strong central government but it does not allow it to become all powerful by still allowing states and people rights.
one of nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jeffrson and stemming from the anti-federalists, emerged around 1792, gradually became today's Democratic party. The Jeffersonian republicans were pro-French, liberal, and mostly made up of the middle class. They favored a weak central govt., and strong states's rights.
Judiciary Act of 1789
The Judiciary Act of 1789 organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and and a chief justice, along with several federal district and circuit courts. It also created the attorney general's office. This Act created the judiciary branch of the U.S. government and thus helped to shape the future of this country.
1. He was a represenative of the French Republic who came to America in order to recruit Americans to help fight in the French Revolution. 2. He landed in Charleston SC around 1793 after the outbreak of war between France and Britian. 3. The actions of Citizen Genet the new government was exposed as being vaunerable. It also showed how the government was maturing.
A General, nicknamed "Mad Anthony". Beat Northwest Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. Left British made arms on the fields of battle. After that the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 led to the Indians ceding their claims to a vast tract in the Ohio Country.
A Federalist who was Vice President under Washington in 1789, and later became President by three votes in 1796. Known for his quarrel with France, and was involved in the xyz Affair, Quais War, and the Convention of 1800. Later though he was also known for his belated push for peace w/ France in 1800. Regarding his personality he was a "respectful irritation".
French foreign minister; In 1797, Adams sent a diplomatic commission to France to settle matters about the upset of the Jay Treaty of 1794. The French thought that America was siding with the English violating the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. The commission was sent to talk to Talleyrand about the seizing of American ships by the French. Communication between the commission and Talleyrand existed between three go betweeners (XYZ) because talking to Talleyrand in person would cost a quarter of a million dollars. Americans soon negotiated and this act subtly started an undeclared war with France.
The Compact theory was popular amoung the English political philosophers in the eighteenth century. In America, it was supported by Jefferson and Madison. It meant that the thirteen states, by creating the federal government, had entered into a contract about its jurisdiction. The national government was the agent of the states. This meant that the individual states were the final judges of the national government's actions. The theory was the basis for the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions passed in 1798. The compact theory was used to try to stop the Federalist abuses like the Alien and Sedition Acts.
The federalist party had passed the alien and sedition acts to regulate the strong oppions of the republicans. These laws violated the freedoms of the first amendment granted to the people, and prosecuted them for speaking out. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison protested the laws by writing the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, which asked the states to declare the laws null. They thought that "nullification was the rightful remedy". Virginia and Kentucky were the only states that voted for this nullification, which is to make a law invalid.
The French Revolution began in 1789 with some nonviolent restrictions on the king, but became more hostile in 1792 when France declared war on Austria. Seeking help from America, the French pointed to the Franco-American alliance of 1778. Not wanting to get involved for fear of damage to the trade business, Washington gave the Neutrality Proclomation, which made America neutral. This led to arguments between Americans and French. After fighting with the French over such things as the Jay Treaty, the Americans came to peace with France in 1800. The French Revolution was not a war within a country, but a war that affected the world.
Jay Treaty 1794
a treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S. and greatly disturbed the Jeffersonians. Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. The British, however, would not promise to leave American ships alone in the future, and they decided that the Americans still owed British merchants for pre-Revolutionary war debts. Because of this, many Southerners especially, were angry and rioted and called John Jay the "Damn'd Archtraitor." (176)
Pinckey Treaty 1795-
Gave America what they demanded from the Spanish. Free navigation of the Mississippi, large area of north Florida. (helped America to have unexpected diplomatic sucess) Jay Treaty- helped prompt the Spanish to deal with the port of New Oleans.
Convention of 1800
Treaty signed in Paris that ended France's peacetime military alliance with America. Napolean was eager to sign this treaty so he could focus his attention on conquering Europe and perhaps create a New World empire in Lousiana. This ended the "quasi-war" between France and America.
1793, issued by George Washington, established isolationist policy,proclaimed government's official neutrality in widening European conflicts also warned American citizens about intervening on either side of conflict
Alien and Sedition Acts 1798
Contains four parts: 1. Raised the residence requirement for American citizenship from 5 to 14 years. 2. Alien Act-gave the President the power in peacetime to order any alien out of the country. 3. Alien Enemies Act-permitted the President in wartime to jail aliens when he wanted to.-No arrests made under the Alien Act or the Alien Enemies Act. 4. The Sedition Act-key clause provided fines and jail penalties for anyone guilty of sedition. Was to remain in effect until the next Presidential inauguration. The Sedition Act's purpose was to silence Republican opposition to Adam's administration. Many people were fined and jailed under the Sedition Act. Jefferson and Madison believed the acts were violations of the First Amendment. Expired March 1801.
Battle of Fallen Timber
An attack made by American General "Mad Anthony Wayne" against invading Indians from the northwest. The defeat of the Indians ended the alliance made with the British and Indians.
The Farewell Address was a document by George Washington in 1796, when he retired from office. It wasn't given orally, but was printed in newspapers. It did not concern foreign affairs; most of it was devoted to domestic problems. He stressed that we should stay away from permanent alliances with foreign countries; temporary alliances wouldn't be quite as dangerous, but they should be made only in "extraordinary emergencies". He also spoke against partisan bitterness. The document was rejected by the jeffersonians, who favored the alliance with France.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
The Virginia and kentucky Resolutions were put into practice in 1798 by Jefferson and James Madison. These resolutions were secretly made to get the rights back taken away by the Alien and Sedition Acts. These laws took away freedom of speech and press guaranteed by the Bill of Rights. These resolutions also brought about the later compact theory which gave the states more power than the federal government.
Treaty of Greenville
Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1795 Allowed Americans to explore the area with peace of mind that the land belonged to America and added size and very fertile land to America.