Biology-2nd test

Aerobic Cell Respiration

the metabolic pathways that provide electrons for the electron transport system in the mitochondrial cristae, and provide protons for the formation of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Cells obtain most of their ATP this way.
4 Processes:
-pyruvate oxidation
-citric acid cycle (CAC)
-Oxidative phosphorylation


pccurs in the cytoplasm, starts with glucose + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2NAD+. , a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP

Pyruvate Oxidation

2nd step in cellular respiration occurs on the way to the mitochondrial matrix. Pyruvate is oxidized into 1 CO2, 1 NADH, 1 acetyl-COA (2 carbons attached to coenzyme A)

Citric Acid Cycle

in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy, occurs in the mitochondria matrix

Chemiosmotic mechanism of Oxidative Phosphorylation

occurs on the inner membranes of the mitochondria, high energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed down from an electron transport chain (ETC) to a lower energy state. The energy released is used to move hydrogen ions from the matrix into the inner membrane space.

Electron Transport Chain

ETC, a series of adjacent protein complexes on a membrane

Alpha ketogluteric acid

citric acid cycle disruptor, binds to Amonia (NH3)

Ways to dispose of Amonia

1) fish and amphibians-diffuse the amonia across the gills into the water
2) mammels and rest of amphibians-converts amonia into urea and then excretes it.
3)Birds and reptiles-convert amonia to urea, which is then converted to uric acid, not soluable in water.


process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches

Steps of Photosynthesis

1) Light dependant reactions
2) Light independant reactions


visible elctromagnetic radiation travelling as waves of packets of energy called photons.


the shorter the wave-length, the higher the frequency
the longer the wave-length, the lower the frequency

Photosynthetically Active Radiation


Photosythetic Pigments

Chlorophyll A--450nm, 680nm, primary photosynthetic pigment, uses red and blue light, generates high energy electrons.
Clorophyll B
Chlorophyll C
phyoerythrin (ONLY IN RED ALGAE)

Absorbtion Spectrum

the wave length of light absorbed by a particular pigment


moving high energy electrons through the ETC from a high concentration gradient to a low concentration gradient, and the energy released from that movement is used to transfer hydrogen ions across the cell membrane.


section of chromosomes that are responsible for different traits


composed of chromatin, which is a combination of DNA and protiens


number of sets of chromosomes in the nucleus.


1 set of chromosomes


2 sets of chromosomes

haploid number

the number of types of chromosomes

cell cycle

from "birth" to division, 3 stages
-interphase (18-19 hrs)
-mitosis (1 hr)
-cytokinesis (few minutes)


3 steps:
G1-normal cell activity, growth of cytoplasm and organelles, and massive enzyme production
S (synthesis)-DNA replication
G2-mitrochondria and chloroplasts replicate, MTOC replicate and migrate to opposite ends, lots of tubulin produced

light dependant reactions

occur on the thylakoid or folds of plasma membrane in prokaryotes


bundle of pigments incased in a transmembrane protein

photosystems (types)

P870--only found in bacterial photosynthesis

Cyclic Phosphorylation

used to power ATP synthase during chemiosmosis. high energy electrons are used from photosythesis at ETC to pump Hydrogen ions across the membrane.

Non-Cyclic Phosphorylation

starts with light and water, ends with ATP and NADPH

Light independant reactions

calvin cycle
carbon fixation
18 ATP +12 NADPH +6CO2--> C6H12O6 (glucose)
occurs in the stroma

# of cells in body

100 trillion