Hist Exam One

10 Percent Plan

In 1863 Lincoln developed this plan to offer amnesty to southern states. Ten percent of voters in confederate states must accept emancipation and swear loyalty to the union. High ranking confederate officials couldnt vote, hold office unless pardoned. Onc

Freedman's Bureau

Established in 1865 by congress, it was a government agency designed to create a new social order by government mandate. Oversaw relief activities designed to aid former slaves. Established schools for black children. Helped reunite families seperated und

Wade-Davis Bill

1864, A bill that would have allowed southern states back into the union only after 50% of the population had taken the loyalty oath. Written by two Radical Republicans

Iron Clad Oath

In 1862, It was an oath to be taken by southerners to testify that they had never voluntarily aided or abetted the rebellion. President Lincoln voted the bill.

John Wilkes Booth

Was an American stage actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre in DC. In 1865. He sympathized with the Confederates.

President Andrew Johnson

Former Senator from Tennesee; became Lincolns vice president. A democrat with a similiar reconstruction plan to Lincoln. Became president after Lincolns assaination in 1865. Issued 13,000 Pardons. Unconcerned with rights of former slaves and was eventuall

Radical Republicans

Wanted to Punish the south for causing the civil war. They fought to protect the rights of fromer slaves.

The Command of the Army Act

Act issued in 1867 that forced President Johnson to issue military orders through the general of the army instead of directly to the south. The President couldnt fire Generals in the south.

1866 Civil Rights Act

The first civil rights act in US history. It had little power. It was passed by congress over Johnson's veto. The Act stated all persons born in the US were citezens regardless of race. As citizens they could make and enforce contracts, sue and be sued, g


White north born government officials who moved south after the confederate defeat. It was a derogatory term, suggesting opportunism and exploitation by the outsiders

Comprimise of 1877

Comprimise in which republicans promised to withdraw federal troops from the region, if southern democrats accepted Haye's presidential victory and respected the rights of black citezens.

Rutherford Hayes

Was the 19th President of the United States from 1877 to 1881. He was a republican and served as the Governor of Ohio twice. He beat New York Democrat Samuel Tilden in the election of 1976 putting an end to the reconstruction era.


They were a faction of the republican party who were in favor of Grant.They were the "traditional" Republicans who opposed Hayes' civil service reform. They were pitted against the "Half-Breeds" for control of the Republican Party.

13th Amendment

In 1865 this amendment was passed and prohibitted slavery in the United States

14th Amendment

In 1868 this amendment was passed. It stated that all persons born in the United States were citezens. All Citezens are guarenteed equal treatment under the law. Punished states that denied adult males the right to vote.

15th Amendment

In 1870 this amendment was passed guareenteing the right to vote for all black men.

1867 Plan for reconstruction

The former confederate states were militarily occupied by US troops. States could re-enter the union once they ratified the 14th amendment.

Tenure of Office Act

It required the president to obtain the consent of the senate before removing any appointed government officail from office. Basically the law declared that Johnson couldnt fire anyone without congressional approval.


Southern born white republicans. The term is originally used by cattle drivers to describe live stock that was too filthy for consumption. Many had been non slave holding poor farmers.

Chester Arthur

Was fired for corruption. In the Stallworth faction of the republicans. Runs for vice president then president Garfield dies. He becomes president in 1881.

Abraham Lincoln

Won the first Republican nomination and was elected president in 1860. He served as the 16th President of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865

Emancipation Proclamation

Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free

Samuel Tilden

Democratic candidate for presidency in 1876 won popular vote but was one vote short in electoral college, as compromise the republican candidate (Hayes) became president if troops were withdrawn from South ending the Reconstruction era

Eugene Debs

eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States. Was a loabor union organizer. Born into a lower middle class family. Ran for president multiple times. Was the leader of the ARU


was a prominent Native American leader and medicine man of the Chiricahua Apache who fought against Mexico and the United States and their expansion into Apache tribal lands for several decades during the Apache Wars.

Samuel Gompers

founded the American Federation of Labor. He and the AFL worked with the government to avoid strikes and boost morale, while raising wage rates and expanding membership.

American Railraod Union

was the largest labor union of its time, and one of the first industrial unions in the United States. Founded in 1893, by railway workers under the leadership of Eugene V. Debs.

Horatio Alger

Moved away from biographies to writing novels. Sold over 135 novels. After his family left him he died alone bitter and broke. Most famous for his novels following the adventures of people going from rags to riches

Russell Conwell

Was an American Baptist minister. He left the ministry to become a motivational speaker. Gives the speach "Acres of Diamonds" over 6,000 times. Stressed self improvement.

Josiah Strong

Author of Our Country, on Anglo-Saxon superiority; a popular American minister in the late 1800s who linked Anglo-Saxonism to Christian missionary ideas


the belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners

American Protective Association

was an American anti-Catholic society. Its goal was to removing Catholic teachers from public schools and banning Catholics from public offices

Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act

The act provided for some government jobs to be filled on the basis of competitive exams. The act served as a response to President James Garfield's assassination. The act was passed in 1883. The law only applied to federal government jobs

Gilded Age

refers to the era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction eras of the late 19th century.

James Blaine

He was nominated for president in 1884, but lost a close race to Democrat Grover Cleveland. He was a republican half breed.

The Grange

Founded by Oliver Kelly in 1867 to provide education and emotional support to farmers in the great plains and the midwest. Tried to end rail road discounts given to large business.

American Federation of Labor

Formed in 1884; lead by Samuel Gompers. It was a union of skilled workers that wanted 8 hour work days and employer liabilities for injuries and deaths.

Yellow Press

Journalists that streched the truth to sell newspapers.

Progressive Party

Was an American political party. It was formed after a split in the Republican Party between incumbent President William Howard Taft and former President Theodore Roosevelt.

Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States. Former Governor of New Jersey. Passed several "progressive" amendments.

16th Amendment

Congress was granted the authority to impose income tax.

19th Amendment

Guarenteed all adult women the right to vote.

great northern railroad

A railroad trust that was sued by the Sherman Antitrust Case, one of the first trusts to be busted. They held a monopoly over railroads in the northeast.

Sherman Anti trust act

intended to prevent the creation of monopolies by making it illegal to establish trusts that interfered with free trade


Investigative reporters who exposed facts. Upton Sinclair author of the Jungle was one.

Black Codes

Laws establishing conditions very similiar to slavery. African Americans couldnt leave plantations, restrictions on interacial marrige, jury service etc.


A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.

USS Maine

A US war ship that exploded in Havana Harbor. 226 Americans were killed and the US blaimed the Spanish.

Treaty of Paris 1898

Was signed on December 10, 1898, at the end of the Spanish-American War

Open Door Notes

mesage sent by John Hay to other countries to protect U.S. trading rights in China

Edwin Stanton

Popular Secretary of War who is fired by Johnson and leads to Johnson's impeachment

William Taft

27th president, known for trust-busting, strengthening of Interstate Commerce Commission, belief in world peace. Wanted to be supreme justice, got distant from TR

Self Made Man

according to this idea, those who achieved success in America did so not as a result of hereditary privilege or government favoritism, but through their own intelligence and hard work.


republican reformers who were accused of backing reform simply to create openings for their own supporters.

Little Bighorn

a battle in Montana between United States cavalry under Custer and several groups of Native Americans (1876)


chief of the Chokonen band of the Chiricahua Apache and the leader of an uprising that began in 1861 most famous Apache leaders

Haymarket Riot

A planned strike by the Knights of Labor results in police confrontation and a bomb. In 1886 in chicago.

Pullman Strike

was a nationwide conflict between labor unions and railroads that occurred in the United States in 1894. Conflict began in Illionois.

William McGuffey

was an American professor and college president who is best known for writing Readers, one of the nation's first and most widely used series of textbooks.

Richard Ely

leader of the Progressive movement, called for more government intervention in order to reform the injustices of capitalism, especially regarding factory conditions, child labor, and labor unions. Founder of American Economic Association.

American Economic Association

liked economics to social problems, urged govt. intervention in economic affairs. Founded by Richard Ely.

Parochial School

a school that is run by a religious group, such as a church

Spoils System

is a practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party.

Grover Clevland

was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States. was the only Democrat elected to the presidency in the era of Republican political domination that lasted from 1860 to 1912. Was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariff

Manifest Destiny

This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.


a party made up of farmers and laborers that wanted direct election of senators and an 8hr working day

William Jennings Bryan

Politician who ran for president 1896, 1900 and 1908 under Democrats, was a pro-silverite and Populist leader

Alfred Mahan

Captain of the U.S. Navy who was for imperialism. He thought that a bigger navy was needed to protect American ships.

Boxer Rebellion

A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.

Treaty of Portsmouth

1905 treaty between Russia and Japan ending the Russo-Japanese War

Hepburn Act

This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods.

Election of 1912

Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win