psychology week 1 test

Neuron

an individual nerve cell

Dendrites

neuron fibers that receive incoming messages

Soma

the main body of a neuron or other cell

Axon (action Potential)

fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron

Axon Terminals (neurotransmitters)

bulb-shaped structures at the ends of axons that form synapses with the dendrites and somas of other neutrons

Central Nervous System (CNS)

the brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

all parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord

Autonomic Nervous System ( ANS)

the system of nerves carrying information to and from the internal organs and glands.

Somatic Nervous System (SNS)

The system of nerves linking the spinal cord with the body and sense organs.

Sympathetic Branch

the branch of the ANS that arouses the body.

Parasympathetic Branch

the branch of the ANS that quiets the body.

Computed Tomographic Scan (CT Scan)

a computer- enhanced X-ray image of the brain or body

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

an imaging technique that results in a three-dimensional image of the brain or body, based on its response to a magnetic field

Ablation

surgical removal of tissue

Deep Lesioning

removal of tissue within the brain by use of an electrode

Electroencephalograph ( EEG)

a device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain.

Positron Emission Tomography ( PET)

an imaging technique that results in a computer-generated image of brain activity, based on glucose consumption in the brain.

Functional MRI (fMRI)

MRI technique that records brain activity

Cerebral Cortex Lobes

areas on the left and right cortex bordered by major fissures or defined by their functions.

Frontal Lobes

areas of the cortex associated with movement, the sense of self, and higher mental functions.

Parietal Lobes

areas fo the cortex where bodily sensations register.

Temporal Lobes

areas of the cortex that include the sites where hearing registers in the brain

Occipital Lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex where vision registers in the brain

Limbic System

a system in the forebrain that is closely linked with emotional response

Thalamus

a brain structure that relates sensory information to the cerebral cortex

Hypothalamus

a small area of the brain that regulates emotional behaviors and motives

Amygdala

a part of the limbic system associated with fear responses.

Hippocampus

a part of the limbic system associated with storing memories.

Medulla

the structure that connects the brain with the spinal cord and controls vital life functions

Pons

an area on the brainstem that acts as a bridge between the medulla and other structures.

Cerebellum

a brain structure that controls posture and coordination.

Reticular Formation (RF)

a network within the medulla and brainstem; associated with attention, alertness, and some reflexes.

Reticular activating system (RAS)

a part of the reticular formation that activates the cerebral cortex.

Pituitary Gland

the "master gland" whose hormones influence other endocrine glands

Pineal Gland

gland in the brain that helps regulate body rhythms and sleep cycles.

Thyroid Gland

endocrine gland that helps regulate the rate of metabolism.

Adrenal Gland

endocrine glands that arouse the body, regulate salt balance, adjust the body to stress, and affect sexual functioning.

Psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

Overt Behavior

directly observable actions and responses

Covert Behavior

private, internal activities, such as thinking, dreaming, remembering and other mental events.

Goals of Psychology

the ultimate goal is to benefit humanity: describe, understand, predict and control behavior.

Psychological Research

many fields, such as history, law, art and business, are also interested in human behavior.

Structuralism

the school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements.

pseudo-psychologies

any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior.