Study of the life history requirements & general characteristics of forest trees & stands in relation to the environment & practice of silviculture


The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests and woodlands to meet the diverse needs and values of landowners and society on a sustainable basis.


A population of trees that has been established in a forest enviroment.

Natural regeneration

Reestablishment of a forest by seeds from neighboring trees transported without human help or by sprouts.

Artificial regeneration

The practice of planting seedlings or direct seeding for reestablishing a forest

Direct seeding

Putting seeds directly into the forest floor rather than planting seedlings


Series of events that results in the growth of a plant from a seed


A young plant grown from a seed; a young tree from seed up to about 3' in height.


A place where plants are grown for sale; a large outdoor planting of tree seedlings.

Bare-root stock

Seedlings lifted from a seed bed leaving the roots free of soil.

Allelopathic effect

The act of certain plants that maintain their dominance over other plants by releasing chemicals into the area close around them providing small doses of poison to invading plants, thereby reducing competition.


A chemical agent that destroys plants or inhibits their growth

Controlled burn

The practice of burning areas of forest or grassland under carefully controlled conditions to improve the health of an ecosystem, return an ecosystem to a more natural state, and help prevent uncontrolled uncatastrophic fires

Clear cutting

Cutting all the trees in an area down at once

Even aged stand

A stand of trees containing a single age class in which the range of tree ages is usually less than 20 percent of rotation.

Uneven aged stand

A forest area composed of intermingling trees of markedly different ages.


A young tree over three feet in height until the lower branches begin to fall or it reaches a diameter of 4".


A tree from 4" to 10" in diameter.


A tree that is from 10" to 24" in diameter.


Large trees that have begun to decline or decay.


A stage of growth in trees showing evidence of heart rot, decay, and other defects due to age.


The process of cutting around a tree through the phloem to the xylem; food can no longer reach the roots, which die first. Then the top can not get minerals and it dies too.


A chemical or agent used to destroy rats or other rodent pests, or to prevent them from damaging food, crops, etc.

Cleaning operation

The removing of vegetation that competes with young trees during the seedling or sapling stage of growth.

Stand improvement

An operation like a cleaning operation that occurs when a stand is older than the sapling stage.


The removal of undesirable older trees in the stand to make sunlight available to the young trees.

Intermediate cutting

Silviculture practice intended to improve the forest by harvesting from a stand of trees before the trees reach planned maturity.

Salvage cutting

Removing trees that have been or may be killed or damaged due to insects, ice, fire, and other agents is called:, Removing trees that have been or may be killed or damaged due to insects, ice, fire, and other agents is called:

Sanitation cutting

The removal of trees infested with insects or attacked by diseases to save the rest of the stand.


The practice of removing the lower branches of a tree; this results in fewer knots in the lumber that is cut from the logs in the future.

Harvest cutting

Removal of any or all trees in an area for sale; the final event in a cycle of forest production.

Shelterwood cutting

Removal of mature, marketable trees in an area in a series of partial cuttings to allow regeneration of a new stand under the partial shade of older trees, which are later removed. Typically, this is done by making two or three cuts over a decade.

Seed tree cutting

Almost all trees are harvested from an area; a scattering of desirable trees is left behind to provide seeds for the regeneration of the forest.