Body St - Urinary System

Urinary system is composed of?

2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 bladder, 1 urethra

Function of the urinary system (kidneys)?

Maintain internal balance or homeostasis

Functions of the Urinary system:

Formation of urine

Functions of the urinary system:

Removal of nitrogenous wastes and toxins (byproducts of drugs)

Functions of the urinary system:

Water balance - excretes or conserves water

Functions of the urinary system:

Electrolyte balance - regulation of the excretion if electrolytes

Functions of the urinary system:

Acid base balance

Functions of the urinary system:

Regulation of BP

Functions of the urinary system:

RBC production

Location of the kidney:

Retro peritoneal (behind perotineum)
Right -- lower (above waistline, right one is lower than the left)

Size of the kidney?

4" long, 2" wide, 1" thick

Shape of the kidney?

Bean shape

What protects the kidney?

Note: kidney do NOT have bony protection
1. Adipose capsule - very vascular
2. Renal fascia (connective tissue)

What is hilum?

Notched area on the kidneys - medial surface where blood vessels and nerves enter

4 internal structures of the kidney

Cortex, renal medulla, renal pelvis, calyces

What is the cortex

The outer layer of the kidneys

What is contained in the cortex?

Renal corpuscle - Bowman's capsule & glomerulus
Proximal convoluted tubule
Distal convoluted tubule

What is the renal medulla?

Inner portion of the kidney

The renal medulla contains?

Pyramids - collecting tubules & loop of Henle

Parts of the pyramids (of the renal medulla)

Base - face of the cortex (water portion)
Papillae - tip or apex, which drain into calyx - the inner most tip

Renal Pelvis:

Expansion of the upper end of the ureter (reservoir that collects urine)

Calyces:

Smaller divisions of the renal pelvis

What is a nephron?

[Functional unit(s) of the kidney] that filter the waste products from the blood and form urine